Description of investigations and control measures in response to seven autochthonous dengue cases in France
Eurosurveillance, Volume 21, Issue 21, 26 May 2016
Table of Contents
In August and September 2015, seven locally acquired cases of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) were detected in Nîmes, south of France, where Aedes albopictus has been established since 2011. Epidemiological and entomological investigations allowed to steer vector control measures to contain transmission. An imported case from French Polynesia with onset fever on 4 July was identified as primary case. This outbreak occurred from 8 August to 11 September in a 300 m radius area. Six sprayings to control mosquitos were performed in the affected area. We describe the first considerable dengue outbreak in mainland France where only sporadic cases of autochthonous dengue were recorded previously (2010, 2013 and 2014). The 69 day-period between the primary case and the last autochthonous case suggests multiple episodes of mosquito infections. The absence of notification of autochthonous cases during the month following the primary case’s symptoms onset could be explained by the occurrence of inapparent illness. Recurrence of cases every year since 2013, the size of the 2015 outbreak and continuing expansion of areas with presence of Ae. albopictus highlight the threat of arboviral diseases in parts of Europe. Thus, European guidelines should be assessed and adjusted to the current context.
Concurrent analysis of antibiotic resistance of colonising and invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae gives a more accurate picture than looking at either of them separately. Therefore, we analysed 2,129 non-invasive and 10,996 invasive pneumococcal isolates from Switzerland from 2004 to 2014, which spans the time before and after the introduction of the heptavalent (PCV7) and 13-valent (PCV13) conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines. Serotype/serogroup information was linked with all antibiotic resistance profiles. During the study period, the proportion of non-susceptible non-invasive and invasive isolates significantly decreased for penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). This was most apparent in non-invasive isolates from study subjects younger than five years (penicillin (p = 0.006), erythromycin (p = 0.01) and TMP-SMX (p = 0.002)). Resistant serotypes/serogroups included in PCV7 and/or PCV13 decreased and were replaced by non-PCV13 serotypes (6C and 15B/C). Serotype/serogroup-specific antibiotic resistance rates were comparable between invasive and non-invasive isolates. Adjusted odds ratios of serotype/serogroup-specific penicillin resistance were significantly higher in the west of Switzerland for serotype 6B (1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4–4.8), 9V (3.4; 95% CI: 2.0–5.7), 14 (5.3; 95% CI: 3.8–7.5), 19A (2.2; 95% CI: 1.6–3.1) and 19F (3.1; 95% CI: 2.1–4.6), probably due to variations in the antibiotic consumption.
Since 2007, livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has become the predominant MRSA clade isolated from humans in the Netherlands. To assess possible temporal changes, we molecularly characterised over 9,000 LA-MRSA isolates submitted from 2003 to 2014 to the Dutch MRSA surveillance. After an initial rapid increase with a peak in 2009 (n = 1,368), the total number of submitted LA-MRSA isolates has been slowly decreasing to 968 in 2014 and over 80% of LA-MRSA belonged to one of three predominant MLVA/spa-types. Next generation sequencing (n=118) showed that MT569/t034 isolates were genetically more diverse than MT398/t011 and MT572/t108. Concurrent with the decrease in LA-MRSA, fewer people reported having contact with livestock and this was most prominent for people carrying MT569/t034 LA-MRSA. The proportion of LA-MRSA isolated from infection-related materials increased from 6% in 2009, to 13% in 2014 and most of these isolates originated from patients older than 50 years of age. Remarkably, 83% of these patients reported not having contact with livestock. The results reveal an ongoing change in the genotypic and epidemiological characteristics of Dutch LA-MRSA isolated from humans with the emergence of a LA-MRSA subclade independent of livestock exposure, suggesting LA-MRSA starts to resemble non-LA-MRSA in terms of transmissibility and pathogenicity.
Eurosurveillance Edition: 26 May 2016
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