1887
Review Open Access
Like 0

Abstract

non-O1 serogroup (VCNO) bacteraemia is a severe condition with a high case–fatality rate. We report three cases diagnosed in the Netherlands, identified during a national microbiological congress, and provide a literature review on VCNO bacteraemia. A search strategy including synonyms for 'VCNO' and ‘bacteraemia' was applied to PubMed, Medline, Web of Science and Embase databases. The three cases were reported in elderly male patients after fish consumption and/or surface water contact. The literature search yielded 82 case reports on 90 cases and six case series. Thirty case reports were from Asia (30/90; 33%), concerned males (67/90; 74%), and around one third (38/90; 42%) involved a history of alcohol abuse and/or liver cirrhosis The presenting symptom often was gastroenteritis (47/90; 52%) which occurred after seafood consumption in 32% of the cases (15/47).Aside from the most frequent symptom being fever, results of case series concurred with these findings. Published cases also included rare presentations e.g. endophthalmitis and neonatal meningitis. Based on the limited data available, cephalosporins seemed the most effective treatment. Although mainly reported in Asia, VCNO bacteraemia occurs worldwide. While some risk factors for VCNO were identified in this study, the source of infection remains often unclear. Clinical presentation may vary greatly and therefore a quick microbiological diagnosis is indispensable.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.15.30197
2016-04-14
2017-11-18
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.15.30197
Loading
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/eurosurveillance/21/15/eurosurv-21-30197-7.html?itemId=/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.15.30197&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Versalovic J, Carroll KC, Funke G, Jorgensen JH, Landry ML, Warnock DW. Manual of clinical microbiology. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2011.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). CDC Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae. Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae. Ch 6. Atlanta: CDC. [Accessed 13 Apr 2016]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/pdf/Laboratory-Methods-for-the-Diagnosis-of-Vibrio-cholerae-chapter-6.pdf
  3. Díaz-Quiñonez A, Hernández-Monroy I, Montes-Colima N, Moreno-Pérez A, Galicia-Nicolás A, Martínez-Rojano H, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor strain--La Huasteca Region, Mexico, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(25):552-3. PMID: 24964882 
  4. Haley BJ, Choi SY, Grim CJ, Onifade TJ, Cinar HN, Tall BD, et al. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolates from a US Gulf Coast cholera outbreak. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e86264.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086264  PMID: 24699521 
  5. Schets FM, van den Berg HH, Marchese A, Garbom S, de Roda Husman AM. Potentially human pathogenic vibrios in marine and fresh bathing waters related to environmental conditions and disease outcome. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2011;214(5):399-406.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2011.05.003  PMID: 21664866 
  6. Visser IJ, ter Laak EA, van Dijk NW, Wouda W. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae non-O:1 isolated from a goat in The Netherlands. Vet Q. 1991;13(2):114-8.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01652176.1991.9694293  PMID: 1882490 
  7. Schets FM, van den Berg HH, Rutjes SA, de Roda Husman AM. Pathogenic Vibrio species in dutch shellfish destined for direct human consumption. J Food Prot. 2010;73(4):734-8. PMID: 20377964 
  8. Albuquerque A, Cardoso H, Pinheiro D, Macedo G. Vibrio cholerae non-O139 and non-139 infection in hepatitis C cirrhosis: A rare event. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2011 Oct; Conference (var.pagings):S280.
  9. Anderson AM, Varkey JB, Petti CA, Liddle RA, Frothingham R, Woods CW. Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae septicemia: case report, discussion of literature, and relevance to bioterrorism. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004;49(4):295-7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2004.04.016  PMID: 15313536 
  10. Berghmans T, Crokaert F, Sculier JP. Vibrio cholerae bacteremia in a neutropenic patient with non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;21(9):676-8.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-002-0794-1  PMID: 12373501 
  11. Blanche P, Sicard D, Sevali Garcia J, Paul G, Fournier JM. Septicemia due to non-O:1 Vibrio cholerae in a patient with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;19(4):813.  https://doi.org/10.1093/clinids/19.4.813  PMID: 7803670 
  12. Burns KD, Yurack J, McIntyre RW. Non-OI vibrio cholerae septicemia associated with a motor vehicle accident. CMAJ. 1989;140(11):1334-5. PMID: 2720517 
  13. Chan HL, Ho HC, Kuo TT. Cutaneous manifestations of non-01 Vibrio cholerae septicemia with gastroenteritis and meningitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;30(4):626-8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0190-9622(94)70071-0  PMID: 8157789 
  14. Chan MR, Pirsch JD. Nonserogroup O1 Vibrio cholerae in a renal transplant patient. Transplantation. 2007;83(5):668-9.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.tp.0000255321.86183.47  PMID: 17353792 
  15. Chang-Chien CH. Bacteraemic necrotizing fasciitis with compartment syndrome caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholerae. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006;59(12):1381-4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2006.06.002  PMID: 17113524 
  16. Chang-Chien CH, Ding HT, Liu C, Yang CS. Vibrio infection associated with finning injury of the hand. Injury. 2007;38(5):614-8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2006.04.134  PMID: 16945371 
  17. Cheng NC, Tsai JL, Kuo YS, Hsueh PR. Bacteremic necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio cholerae serogroup O56 in a patient with liver cirrhosis. J Formos Med Assoc. 2004;103(12):935-8. PMID: 15624044 
  18. Choi SM, Lee DG, Kim MS, Park YH, Kim YJ, Lee S, et al. Bacteremic cellulitis caused by non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae in a patient following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003;31(12):1181-2.  https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bmt.1704044  PMID: 12796802 
  19. Chong Y, Kwon OH, Lee SY, Kim BS, Min JS. Non-O group 1 Vibrio cholerae septicemia and peritonitis--report of two cases. Yonsei Med J. 1985;26(1):82-4.  https://doi.org/10.3349/ymj.1985.26.1.82  PMID: 4072273 
  20. Christenson B, Soler M, Nieves L, Souchet LM. Septicemia due to a non-0:1, non-0:139 Vibrio cholerae. Bol Asoc Med P R. 1997;89(1-3):31-2. PMID: 9168634 
  21. Couzigou C, Lacombe K, Girard P-M, Vittecoq D, Meynard J-L. Non-O:1 and non-O:139 Vibrio cholerae septicemia and pyomyositis in an immunodeficient traveler returning from Tunisia. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2007;5(1):44-6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2006.06.002  PMID: 17161319 
  22. Dalsgaard A, Forslund A, Hesselbjerg A, Bruun B. Clinical manifestations and characterization of extra-intestinal Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 infections in Denmark. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2000;6(11):625-7.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-0691.2000.00174.x  PMID: 11168070 
  23. de Groot R, van der Horst-Bruinsma IE, Janssens AR, Petit PL. [Sepsis caused by non-O1-Vibrio cholerae: a patient in The Netherlands]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1994;138(17):873-5. PMID: 8183400 
  24. Deris ZZ, Leow VM, Wan Hassan WM, Nik Lah NA, Lee SY, Siti Hawa H, et al. Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae bacteraemia in splenectomised thalassaemic patient from Malaysia. Trop Biomed. 2009;26(3):320-5. PMID: 20237446 
  25. Dhar R, Ghafoor MA, Nasralah AY. Unusual non-serogroup O1 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia associated with liver disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1989;27(12):2853-5. PMID: 2592546 
  26. Dhar R, Badawi M, Qabazard Z, Albert MJ. Vibrio cholerae (non-O1, non-O139) sepsis in a child with Fanconi anemia. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004;50(4):287-9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2004.08.004  PMID: 15582302 
  27. El-Hiday AH, Khan FY, Al Maslamani M, El Shafie S. Bacteremia and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Vibrio cholerae (non-O1 non-O139) in liver cirrhosis. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2006;25(2):107. PMID: 16763354 
  28. Eltahawy AT, Jiman-Fatani AA, Al-Alawi MM. A fatal non-01 Vibrio cholerae septicemia in a patient with liver cirrhosis. Saudi Med J. 2004;25(11):1730-1. PMID: 15573214 
  29. Farina C, Luzzi I, Lorenzi N. Vibrio cholerae O2 sepsis in a patient with AIDS. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999;18(3):203-5.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s100960050259  PMID: 10357055 
  30. Farmachidi JP, Sobesky R, Boussougant Y, Quilici ML, Coffin B. Septicaemia and liver abscesses secondary to non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae colitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;15(6):699-700.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00042737-200306000-00018  PMID: 12840683 
  31. Feghali R, Adib SM. Two cases of Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 septicaemia with favourable outcome in Lebanon. East Mediterr Health J. 2011;17(8):722-4. PMID: 21977578 
  32. Fernández-Natal I, Alcoba-Leza M. Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae bacteraemia without diarrhoea. Lancet. 1996;348(9019):67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)64401-7  PMID: 8691963 
  33. Fernández JM, Serrano M, De Arriba JJ, Sánchez MV, Escribano E, Ferreras P. Bacteremic cellulitis caused by Non-01, Non-0139 Vibrio cholerae: report of a case in a patient with hemochromatosis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000;37(1):77-80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0732-8893(99)00153-4  PMID: 10794945 
  34. George N, Fredrick F, Mohapatra A, Veeraraghavan B, Kakde ST, Valson AT, et al. Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae sepsis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome. Indian J Nephrol. 2013;23(5):378-80.  https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-4065.116329  PMID: 24049279 
  35. Halabi M, Haditsch M, Renner F, Brinninger G, Mittermayer H. Vibrio cholerae non-O1 septicaemia in a patient with liver cirrhosis and Billroth-II-gastrectomy. J Infect. 1997;34(1):83-4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-4453(97)80016-3  PMID: 9120332 
  36. Heath CH, Garrow SC, Golledge CL. Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae: a fatal cause of sepsis in northern Australia. Med J Aust. 2001;174(9):480-1. PMID: 11386599 
  37. Hsieh YH, Chan CC, Wang SS, Chiang JH, Chou DY, Chang FY, et al. Recurrent spontaneous bacterial empyema in cirrhosis: a case report. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei). 1998;61(7):421-6. PMID: 9699395 
  38. Huhulescu S, Indra A, Feierl G, Stoeger A, Ruppitsch W, Sarkar B, et al. Occurrence of Vibrio cholerae serogroups other than O1 and O139 in Austria. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007;119(7-8):235-41.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00508-006-0747-2  PMID: 17492351 
  39. Inoue T, Kitai S, Hayaishi S, Kudo M. Septicemia due to Vibrio cholerae serogroup non-O1/non-O139 strain in a cirrhotic patient. Clin J Gastroenterol. 2012;5(6):383-7.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12328-012-0332-3  PMID: 26181318 
  40. Ismail EA, Shafik MH, Al-Mutairi G. A case of non-O:1 Vibrio cholerae septicemia with meningitis, cerebral abscess and unilateral hydrocephalus in a preterm baby. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2001;20(8):598-600.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s100960100553  PMID: 11681447 
  41. Issack MI, Appiah D, Rassoul A, Unuth MN, Unuth-Lutchun N. Extraintestinal Vibrio infections in Mauritius. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2008;2(5):397-9.  https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.205  PMID: 19745511 
  42. Kambal AMM, Ajarim DS, Fawzy E, Babay HH, Chowdhury MNH. Septicemia caused by a non-01 Vibrio cholerae. Ann Saudi Med. 1996;16(2):200-2. PMID: 17372457 
  43. Kerketta JA, Paul AC, Balaji V,, Kirubakaran VB, Jesudason MV, Moses PD. Non-01 Vibrio cholerae septicemia and meningitis in a neonate. Indian J Pediatr. 2002;69(10):909-10.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02723720  PMID: 12450305 
  44. Khan S, Kumar A, Meparambu D, Thomas S, Harichandran D, Karim S. Fatal non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae septicaemia in a patient with chronic liver disease. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62(Pt 6):917-21.  https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.049296-0  PMID: 23449872 
  45. Kontoyiannis DP, Calia KE, Basgoz N, Calderwood SB. Primary septicemia caused by Vibrio cholerae non-O1 acquired on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;21(5):1330-3.  https://doi.org/10.1093/clinids/21.5.1330  PMID: 8589171 
  46. Lalitha MK, Dayal U, Cherian AM. Non-agglutinating vibrio (non 0-1 V. cholerae) septicemia. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 1986;29(1):27-30. PMID: 3781609 
  47. Laosombat V, Pruekprasert P, Wongchanchailert M. Non-0:1 Vibrio cholerae septicemia in thalassemia patients. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1996;27(2):411-3. PMID: 9280014 
  48. Lee MH, Leu HS, Huang SH. Bacteremic cellulitis caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholerae: report of a case. J Formos Med Assoc. 1993;92(5):472-4. PMID: 8104603 
  49. Lopez-Brea M, Jimenez ML, de las Cuevas C, Alcala-Zamora J, Alonso P. Non-01 Vibrio cholerae septicaemia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1985;79(6):878-9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0035-9203(85)90151-8  PMID: 3832501 
  50. Lu B, Zhou H, Li D, Li F, Zhu F, Cui Y, et al. The first case of bacteraemia due to non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae in a type 2 diabetes mellitus patient in mainland China. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;25:116-8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.04.015  PMID: 24905769 
  51. Lukinmaa S, Mattila K, Lehtinen V, Hakkinen M, Koskela M, Siitonen A. Territorial waters of the Baltic Sea as a source of infections caused by Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139: report of 3 hospitalized cases. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;54(1):1-6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2005.06.020  PMID: 16368474 
  52. Magnusson MR, Pegg SP. Vibrio cholerae non-O1 primary septicaemia following a large thermal burn. Burns. 1996;22(1):44-7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-4179(95)00077-1  PMID: 8719316 
  53. Mannion PT, Mellor S. Unreviewed reports. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1986;292(6518):450.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.292.6518.450  PMID: 20742605 
  54. Marek A, Inkster T, Anderson E, Jenkins C, Boyd J, Kerr S, et al. Non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae bacteraemia: case report and review of the literature. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62(Pt 9):1357-9.  https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.060400-0  PMID: 23722436 
  55. Mattics C. An inland water source of Vibrio cholerae responsible for sepsis. Clin Microbiol Newsl. 1989;11(7):54-6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0196-4399(89)90011-1 
  56. McCleskey FK, Hastings JR, Winn RE, Adams ED Jr. Non-01 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia--complication of a LeVeen shunt. Am J Clin Pathol. 1986;85(5):644-6.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/85.5.644  PMID: 3706203 
  57. Naidu LS, Bakerman PR, Saubolle MA, Lewis K. Vibrio cholerae non-0:1 meningitis in an infant. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1993;12(10):879-81.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00006454-199310000-00016  PMID: 8284127 
  58. Namdari H, Klaips CR, Hughes JL. A cytotoxin-producing strain of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 as a cause of cholera and bacteremia after consumption of raw clams. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38(9):3518-9. PMID: 10970422 
  59. Newman C, Shepherd M, Woodard MD, Chopra AK, Tyring SK. Fatal septicemia and bullae caused by non-01 Vibrio cholerae. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;29(5 Pt 2):909-12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0190-9622(93)70269-Y  PMID: 8408840 
  60. Patel NM, Wong M, Little E, Ramos AX, Kolli G, Fox KM, et al. Vibrio cholerae non-O1 infection in cirrhotics: case report and literature review. Transpl Infect Dis. 2009;11(1):54-6.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3062.2008.00339.x  PMID: 18811633 
  61. Petsaris O, Nousbaum JB, Quilici ML, Le Coadou G, Payan C, Abalain ML. Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae bacteraemia in a cirrhotic patient. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59(Pt 10):1260-2.  https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.021014-0  PMID: 20616193 
  62. Phetsouvanh R, Nakatsu M, Arakawa E, Davong V, Vongsouvath M, Lattana O, et al. Fatal bacteremia due to immotile Vibrio cholerae serogroup O21 in Vientiane, Laos - a case report. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2008;7(1):10.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-0711-7-10  PMID: 18439249 
  63. Phu Huong Lan N, Vu Thieu NT, Thi Thu YN, Dung LT, Thanh TH, Campbell JI, et al. Two cases of non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 bacteremia in Ho Chi Minh City. J Clin Microbiol. 2014.
  64. Piersimoni C, Morbiducci V, Scalise G. Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae gastroenteritis and bacteraemia. Lancet. 1991;337(8744):791-2.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(91)91409-N  PMID: 1672411 
  65. Pitrak DL, Gindorf JD. Bacteremic cellulitis caused by non-serogroup O1 Vibrio cholerae acquired in a freshwater inland lake. J Clin Microbiol. 1989;27(12):2874-6. PMID: 2592550 
  66. Platia E, Vosti KL. Noncholera vibrio septicemia. West J Med. 1980;132(4):354-7. PMID: 7385839 
  67. Poulos JE, Cancio M, Conrad P, Nord HJ, Altus P. Non 0-1 Vibrio cholerae septicemia and culture negative neutrocytic ascites in a patient with chronic liver disease. J Fla Med Assoc. 1994;81(10):676-8. PMID: 7798872 
  68. Rabadan PM, Vilalta E. Non-O:1 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia. Rev Infect Dis. 1989;11(4):667.  https://doi.org/10.1093/clinids/11.4.667  PMID: 2638813 
  69. Raju AZ, Mathai D, Jesudasan M, Suresh M, Kaur A, Abraham OC, et al. Nonagglutinable Vibrio cholerae septicaemia. J Assoc Physicians India. 1990;38(9):665-6. PMID: 2266091 
  70. Restrepo D, Huprikar SS, VanHorn K, Bottone EJ. O1 and non-O1 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia produced by hemolytic strains. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;54(2):145-8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2005.08.008  PMID: 16426794 
  71. Rubin LG, Altman J, Epple LK, Yolken RH. Vibrio cholerae meningitis in a neonate. J Pediatr. 1981;98(6):940-2.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(81)80596-3  PMID: 7229800 
  72. Rudensky B, Marcus EL, Isaacson M, Lefler E, Stamler B, Sechter I. Non-O group 1 Vibrio cholerae septicemia in Israel. Isr J Med Sci. 1993;29(1):54-5. PMID: 8454453 
  73. Safrin S, Morris JG Jr, Adams M, Pons V, Jacobs R, Conte JE Jr. Non-O:1 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia: case report and review. Rev Infect Dis. 1988;10(5):1012-7.  https://doi.org/10.1093/clinids/10.5.1012  PMID: 3055182 
  74. Shelton CH 3rd, Martino RL, Ramsey KM. Recurrent non-0:1 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia in a patient with multiple myeloma. Cancer. 1993;72(1):105-7.  https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19930701)72:1<105::AID-CNCR2820720120>3.0.CO;2-4  PMID: 8508394 
  75. Siegel MI, Rogers AI. Fatal non-01 Vibrio cholerae septicemia in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Gastroenterology. 1982;83(5):1130-1. PMID: 7117796 
  76. Strumbelj I, Prelog I, Kotar T, Dovecar D, Petras T, Socan M. A case of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 septicaemia in Slovenia, imported from Tunisia, July 2005. Euro Surveill. 2005;10(10):E051020.6. PMID: 16790890 
  77. Stypulkowska-Misiurewicz H, Pancer K, Roszkowiak A. Two unrelated cases of septicaemia due to Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 in Poland, July and August 2006. Euro Surveill. 2006;11(11):E061130.2. PMID: 17213560 
  78. Suankratay C, Phantumchinda K, Tachawiboonsak W, Wilde H. Non-serogroup O:1 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia and cerebritis. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32(7):E117-9.  https://doi.org/10.1086/319596  PMID: 11264049 
  79. Tan KK, Sin KS, Ng AJ, Yahya H, Kaur P. Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae septicaemia: a case report. Singapore Med J. 1994;35(6):648-9. PMID: 7761898 
  80. Thisyakorn U, Reinprayoon S. Non-01 Vibrio cholerae septicemia: a case report. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1990;21(1):149-50. PMID: 2402675 
  81. Thomas M, Cherian T, Raghupathy P. Non-O:1 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia and peritonitis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996;15(3):276-7.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00006454-199603000-00025  PMID: 8852924 
  82. Toeg A, Berger SA, Battat A, Hoffman M, Yust I. Vibrio cholerae bacteremia associated with gastrectomy. J Clin Microbiol. 1990;28(3):603-4. PMID: 2324281 
  83. Wang K, Chao CH, Liu IM, Liu CY. Non-0:1 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia: a case report and literature review. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei). 1991;48(3):232-6. PMID: 1657343 
  84. West BC, Silberman R, Otterson WN. Acalculous cholecystitis and septicemia caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholerae: first reported case and review of biliary infections with Vibrio cholerae. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1998;30(3):187-91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0732-8893(97)00235-6  PMID: 9572025 
  85. Wiström J. A case of non-O:1 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia from northern Europe. J Infect Dis. 1989;160(4):732.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/160.4.732  PMID: 2794570 
  86. Wiwatworapan W, Insiripong S. Non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae septicemia with peritonitis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2008;39(6):1098-101. PMID: 19062702 
  87. Yang CC, Lee BJ, Yang SS, Lin YH, Lee YL. A case of non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae septicemia with endophthalmitis in a cirrhotic patient. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2008;61(6):475-6. PMID: 19050358 
  88. Youmbissi JT, Malik TQ, Ajitkumar S, Rafi A, Al Kursany IA, Karkar A. Non-O1 Vibrio choleraesepticemia and peritonitis complicating peritoneal dialysis. Infect Med. 2003;20(3):160-2.
  89. Young CC, Chuang YC, Young CD. Non-O:1 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia: report of two cases. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1991;65(11):1479-83.  https://doi.org/10.11150/kansenshogakuzasshi1970.65.1479  PMID: 1791351 
  90. Ko WC, Chuang YC, Huang GC, Hsu SY. Infections due to non-O1 Vibrio cholerae in southern Taiwan: predominance in cirrhotic patients. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27(4):774-80.  https://doi.org/10.1086/514947  PMID: 9798033 
  91. Lee YL, Hung PP, Tsai CA, Lin YH, Liu CE, Shi ZY. Clinical characteristics of non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolates and polymerase chain reaction analysis of their virulence factors. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2007;40(6):474-80. PMID: 18087626 
  92. Lin CJ, Chiu CT, Lin DY, Sheen IS, Lien JM. Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia in patients with cirrhosis: 5-yr experience from a single medical center. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996;91(2):336-40. PMID: 8607503 
  93. Trubiano JA, Lee JY, Valcanis M, Gregory J, Sutton BA, Holmes NE. Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae bacteraemia in an Australian population. Intern Med J. 2014;44(5):508-11.  https://doi.org/10.1111/imj.12409  PMID: 24816311 
  94. Tsai YH, Huang TJ, Hsu RW, Weng YJ, Hsu WH, Huang KC, et al. Necrotizing soft-tissue infections and primary sepsis caused by Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae non-O1. J Trauma. 2009;66(3):899-905.  https://doi.org/10.1097/TA.0b013e31816a9ed3  PMID: 19276771 
  95. Yang CJ, Wang CS, Lu PL, Chen TC, Chen YH, Huang MS, et al. Bullous cellulitis in cirrhotic patients--a rare but life-threatening infection caused by non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae bacteraemia. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60(Pt 6):861-2.  https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.024497-0  PMID: 21292862 
  96. Sterk A, Schets FM, de Roda Husman AM, de Nijs T, Schijven JF. Effect of Climate Change on the Concentration and Associated Risks of Vibrio Spp. in Dutch Recreational Waters. Risk Anal. 2015;35(9):1717-29.  https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.12365  PMID: 25809307 
  97. Pfeffer CS, Hite MF, Oliver JD. Ecology of Vibrio vulnificus in estuarine waters of eastern North Carolina. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69(6):3526-31.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.6.3526-3531.2003  PMID: 12788759 
  98. Frank C, Littman M, Alpers K, Hallauer J. Vibrio vulnificus wound infections after contact with the Baltic Sea, Germany. Euro Surveill. 2006;11(8):E060817.1. PMID: 16966781 
  99. Oishi H, Ura Y, Mitsumizo S, Nakashima M. [A collective review of Vibrio vulnificus infection in Japan]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2006;80(6):680-9.  https://doi.org/10.11150/kansenshogakuzasshi1970.80.680  PMID: 17176855 
  100. Hor LI, Chang TT, Wang ST. Survival of Vibrio vulnificus in whole blood from patients with chronic liver diseases: association with phagocytosis by neutrophils and serum ferritin levels. J Infect Dis. 1999;179(1):275-8.  https://doi.org/10.1086/314554  PMID: 9841854 
  101. Ceccarelli D, Chen A, Hasan NA, Rashed SM, Huq A, Colwell RR. Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 carrying multiple virulence factors and V. cholerae O1 in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015.
  102. Cinar HN, Kothary M, Datta AR, Tall BD, Sprando R, Bilecen K, et al. Vibrio cholerae hemolysin is required for lethality, developmental delay, and intestinal vacuolation in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS One. 2010;5(7):e11558.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011558  PMID: 20644623 
/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.15.30197
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Comment has been disabled for this content
Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error