1887
Research article Open Access
Like 0

Abstract

Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a rapid and reproducible typing method that is an important tool for investigation, as well as detection, of national and multinational outbreaks of a range of food-borne pathogens. S serovar Enteritidis is the most common serovar associated with human salmonellosis in the European Union/European Economic Area and North America. Fourteen laboratories from 13 countries in Europe and North America participated in a validation study for MLVA of Enteritidis targeting five loci. Following normalisation of fragment sizes using a set of reference strains, a blinded set of 24 strains with known allele sizes was analysed by each participant. The Enteritidis 5-loci MLVA protocol was shown to produce internationally comparable results as more than 90% of the participants reported less than 5% discrepant MLVA profiles. All 14 participating laboratories performed well, even those where experience with this typing method was limited. The raw fragment length data were consistent throughout, and the inter-laboratory validation helped to standardise the conversion of raw data to repeat numbers with at least two countries updating their internal procedures. However, differences in assigned MLVA profiles remain between well-established protocols and should be taken into account when exchanging data.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.9.30477
2017-03-02
2017-11-19
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.9.30477
Loading
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/eurosurveillance/22/9/eurosurv-22-30477-2.html?itemId=/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.9.30477&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Majowicz SE, Musto J, Scallan E, Angulo FJ, Kirk M, O’Brien SJ, et al. International Collaboration on Enteric Disease ‘Burden of Illness’ Studies. The global burden of nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(6):882-9.  https://doi.org/10.1086/650733  PMID: 20158401 
  2. Best EL, Hampton MD, Ethelberg S, Liebana E, Clifton-Hadley FA, Threlfall EJ. Drug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT 120: use of PFGE and MLVA in a putative international outbreak investigation. Microb Drug Resist. 2009;15(2):133-8.  https://doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2009.0911  PMID: 19432517 
  3. Lindstedt BA, Torpdahl M, Vergnaud G, Le Hello S, Weill FX, Tietze E, et al. Use of multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) in eight European countries, 2012. Euro Surveill. 2013;18(4):20385. PMID: 23369388 
  4. Nygard K, Lindstedt BA, Wahl W, Jensvoll L, Kjelso C, Molbak K, et al. Outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infection traced to imported cured sausage using MLVA-subtyping. Euro Surveill. 2007;12(3).
  5. Paranthaman K, Haroon S, Latif S, Vinnyey N, de Souza V, Welfare W, et al. Emergence of a multidrug-resistant (ASSuTTm) strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT120 in England in 2011 and the use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis in supporting outbreak investigations. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2013;10(10):850-5.  https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2013.1513  PMID: 23869962 
  6. Wójcik OP, Kjelsø C, Kuhn KG, Müller L, Jensen T, Kjeldsen MK, et al. Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak associated with smoked pork tenderloin in Denmark, January to March 2011. Scand J Infect Dis. 2012;44(12):903-8.  https://doi.org/10.3109/00365548.2012.693196  PMID: 22804453 
  7. Larsson JT, Torpdahl M, Møller Nielsen E. MLVA working group. Proof-of-concept study for successful inter-laboratory comparison of MLVA results. Euro Surveill. 2013;18(35):20566.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES2013.18.35.20566  PMID: 24008232 
  8. Lindstedt BA, Torpdahl M, Nielsen EM, Vardund T, Aas L, Kapperud G. Harmonization of the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis method between Denmark and Norway for typing Salmonella Typhimurium isolates and closer examination of the VNTR loci. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;102(3):728-35.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.03134.x  PMID: 17309622 
  9. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Laboratory standard operating procedure for MLVA of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. Stockholm: ECDC; 2011. Available from: http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/1109_SOP_Salmonella_Typhimurium_MLVA.pdf
  10. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Indicator-based surveillance. Stockholm: ECDC. [Accessed 31 Aug 2015]. Available from: http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/activities/surveillance/Pages/index.aspx
  11. European Food Safety Authority/European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (EFSA/ECDC). The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2013. EFSA J. 2015;13(1):3991. Available from: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/3991
  12. Hopkins KL, Peters TM, de Pinna E, Wain J. Standardisation of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for subtyping of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Euro Surveill. 2011;16(32):19942. PMID: 21871223 
  13. Larsson JT, Torpdahl M, Petersen RF, Sorensen G, Lindstedt BA, Nielsen EM. Development of a new nomenclature for Salmonella typhimurium multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA). Euro Surveill. 2009;14(15):19174. PMID: 19371515 
  14. Nadon CA, Trees E, Ng LK, Møller Nielsen E, Reimer A, Maxwell N, et al. MLVA Harmonization Working Group. Development and application of MLVA methods as a tool for inter-laboratory surveillance. Euro Surveill. 2013;18(35):20565.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES2013.18.35.20565  PMID: 24008231 
  15. Malorny B, Junker E, Helmuth R. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis for outbreak studies of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8(1):84.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-8-84  PMID: 18513386 
  16. Beranek A, Mikula C, Rabold P, Arnhold D, Berghold C, Lederer I, et al. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis for subtyping of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis. Int J Med Microbiol. 2009;299(1):43-51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2008.06.002  PMID: 18706857 
  17. Boxrud D, Pederson-Gulrud K, Wotton J, Medus C, Lyszkowicz E, Besser J, et al. Comparison of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and phage typing for subtype analysis of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45(2):536-43.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01595-06  PMID: 17151203 
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PulseNet Standard Operating Procedure for PulseNet MLVA of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis – Applied Biosystems Genetic Analyzer 3500 Platform. Atlanta: CDC; Apr 2013. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/pulsenet/PDF/se-abi-3500-508c.pdf
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PulseNet Standard Operating Procedure for PulseNet MLVA of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis – Beckman Coulter CEQ 8000/8800/GeXP Platform. Atlanta: CDC; Apr 2013. URL: http://www.cdc.gov/pulsenet/PDF/se-beckman-508c.pdf
  20. Hyytia-Trees E, Lafon P, Vauterin P, Ribot EM. Multilaboratory validation study of standardized multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis protocol for shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157: a novel approach to normalize fragment size data between capillary electrophoresis platforms. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010;7(2):129-36.  https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2009.0371  PMID: 19785535 
  21. Cho S, Whittam TS, Boxrud DJ, Bartkus JM, Saeed AM. Allele distribution and genetic diversity of VNTR loci in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates from different sources. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8(1):146.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-8-146  PMID: 18793420 
  22. Hopkins KL, Maguire C, Best E, Liebana E, Threlfall EJ. Stability of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45(9):3058-61.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00715-07  PMID: 17609320 
  23. Bertrand S, De Lamine de Bex G, Wildemauwe C, Lunguya O, Phoba MF, Ley B, et al. Multi locus variable-number tandem repeat (MLVA) typing tools improved the surveillance of Salmonella enteritidis: a 6 years retrospective study. PLoS One. 2015;10(2):e0117950.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117950  PMID: 25693200 
  24. Deng X, Shariat N, Driebe EM, Roe CC, Tolar B, Trees E, et al. Comparative analysis of subtyping methods against a whole-genome-sequencing standard for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53(1):212-8.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02332-14  PMID: 25378576 
  25. Wuyts V, Denayer S, Roosens NH, Mattheus W, Bertrand S, Marchal K, et al. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 Outbreaks from a National Reference Laboratory’s Viewpoint. PLoS Curr. 2015;7:7. PMID: 26468422 
  26. Moran-Gilad J, Sintchenko V, Pedersen SK, Wolfgang WJ, Pettengill J, Strain E, et al. Global Microbial Identifier initiative’s Working Group 4 (GMI-WG4). Proficiency testing for bacterial whole genome sequencing: an end-user survey of current capabilities, requirements and priorities. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15(1):174.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-015-0902-3  PMID: 25887164 
  27. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Expert Opinion on the introduction of next-generation typing methods for food- and waterborne diseases in the EU and EEA. Stockholm: ECDC; Oct 2015. Available from: http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/food-and-waterborne-diseases-next-generation-typing-methods.pdf
  28. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PulseNet Standard Operating Procedure for PulseNet MLVA of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium – Applied Biosystems Genetic Analyzer 3130XL Platform. Atlanta: CDC; Apr 2013. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/pulsenet/PDF/st-abi-508c.pdf
  29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PulseNet Standard Operating Procedure for PulseNet MLVA of Escherichia coli O157 (STECO157) – Applied Biosystems Genetic Analyzer 3130XL Platform. Atlanta: CDC; Apr 2013. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/pulsenet/pdf/ec-abi-508c.pdf
  30. Decision No. 1082/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2013 on serious cross-border threats to health and repealing Decision No 2119/98/EC. Luxembourg: Official Journal of the European Union; 5 Nov 2013. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/preparedness_response/docs/decision_serious_crossborder_threats_22102013_en.pdf
  31. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Laboratory standard operating procedure for multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. Stockholm: ECDC; Jan 2016. Available from: http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/Salmonella-Enteritidis-Laboratory-standard-operating-procedure.pdf
/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.9.30477
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Comment has been disabled for this content
Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error