Rapid communication Open Access
Like 0


COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness by product (two doses Comirnaty, Spikevax or Vaxzevria and one of Janssen), against infection ranged from 50% (95% CI: 42 to 57) for Janssen to 86% (70 to 93) for Vaxzevria-Comirnaty combination; among ≥ 60 year-olds, from 17% (−26 to 45) for Janssen to 68% (48 to 80) for Spikevax; and against hospitalisation from 74% (43 to 88) for Janssen to > 90% for other products. Two doses of vaccine were highly effective against hospitalisation, but suboptimal for infection control.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N, Absalon J, Gurtman A, Lockhart S, et al. Safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(27):2603-15.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2034577  PMID: 33301246 
  2. Voysey M, Costa Clemens SA, Madhi SA, Weckx LY, Folegatti PM, Aley PK, et al. Single-dose administration and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine: a pooled analysis of four randomised trials. Lancet. 2021;397(10277):881-91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00432-3  PMID: 33617777 
  3. Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, Kotloff K, Frey S, Novak R, et al. Efficacy and safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(5):403-16.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2035389  PMID: 33378609 
  4. Sadoff J, Gray G, Vandebosch A, Cárdenas V, Shukarev G, Grinsztejn B, et al. Safety and efficacy of single-dose Ad26.COV2.S vaccine against Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(23):2187-201.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2101544  PMID: 33882225 
  5. Ministerio de Sanidad. Estrategia de detección precoz, vigilancia y control de COVID-19. [Strategy for early detection, surveillance and COVID-19 control]. Madrid: Ministerio de Sanidad; 2021. Spanish. Available from: https://www.mscbs.gob.es/profesionales/saludPublica/ccayes/alertasActual/nCov/documentos/COVID19_Estrategia_vigilancia_y_control_e_indicadores.pdf
  6. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Contact tracing: public health management of persons, including healthcare workers, who have had contact with COVID-19 cases in the European Union –third update, 18 November 2020. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/covid-19-contact-tracing-public-health-management-third-update.pdf
  7. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Options for the use of rapid antigen tests for COVID-19 in the EU/EEA and the UK. 19 November 2020. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/Options-use-of-rapid-antigen-tests-for-COVID-19_0.pdf
  8. Consejo Interterritorial del Sistema Nacional de Salud. Estrategia de vacunación frente a COVID-19 en España. [Vaccination strategy against COVID-19 in Spain]. Madrid: Ministerio de Sanidad; 2021. Spanish. Available from: https://www.mscbs.gob.es/profesionales/saludPublica/prevPromocion/vacunaciones/covid19/docs/COVID-19_Actualizacion6_EstrategiaVacunacion.pdf
  9. Haas EJ, Angulo FJ, McLaughlin JM, Anis E, Singer SR, Khan F, et al. Impact and effectiveness of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 cases, hospitalisations, and deaths following a nationwide vaccination campaign in Israel: an observational study using national surveillance data. Lancet. 2021;397(10287):1819-29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00947-8  PMID: 33964222 
  10. Lopez Bernal J, Andrews N, Gower C, Robertson C, Stowe J, Tessier E, et al. Effectiveness of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines on covid-19 related symptoms, hospital admissions, and mortality in older adults in England: test negative case-control study. BMJ. 2021;373(1088):n1088.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1088  PMID: 33985964 
  11. Thompson MG, Stenehjem E, Grannis S, Ball SW, Naleway AL, Ong TC, et al. Effectiveness of Covid-19 Vaccines in ambulatory and inpatient care settings. N Engl J Med. 2021;NEJMoa2110362.  PMID: 34496194 
  12. Martínez-Baz I, Miqueleiz A, Casado I, Navascués A, Trobajo-Sanmartín C, Burgui C, et al. Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation, Navarre, Spain, January to April 2021. Euro Surveill. 2021;26(21):2100438.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.21.2100438  PMID: 34047271 
  13. de Gier B, Andeweg S, Joosten R, Ter Schegget R, Smorenburg N, van de Kassteele J, et al. Vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 transmission and infections among household and other close contacts of confirmed cases, the Netherlands, February to May 2021. Euro Surveill. 2021;26(31):2100640.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.31.2100640  PMID: 34355689 
  14. Self WH, Tenforde MW, Rhoads JP, Gaglani M, Ginde AA, Douin DJ, et al. Comparative effectiveness of Moderna, Pfizer-BioNTech, and Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) vaccines in preventing COVID-19 hospitalizations among adults without immunocompromising conditions - United States, March-August 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021;70(38):1337-43.  https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7038e1  PMID: 34555004 
  15. Borobia AM, Carcas AJ, Pérez-Olmeda M, Castaño L, Bertran MJ, García-Pérez J, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of BNT162b2 booster in ChAdOx1-S-primed participants (CombiVacS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet. 2021;398(10295):121-30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01420-3  PMID: 34181880 
  16. Schmidt T, Klemis V, Schub D, Mihm J, Hielscher F, Marx S, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/mRNA vaccination. Nat Med. 2021;27(9):1530-5.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01464-w  PMID: 34312554 
  17. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Partial COVID-19 vaccination, vaccination following SARS-CoV-2 infection and heterologous vaccination schedule: summary of evidence. 22 July 2021. Stockholm: ECDC; 2021. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/Partial%20COVID%20vaccination%20and%20heterologous%20vacc%20schedule%20-%2022%20July%202021.pdf
  18. Lopez Bernal J, Andrews N, Gower C, Gallagher E, Simmons R, Thelwall S, et al. Effectiveness of Covid-19 vaccines against the B.1.617.2 (Delta) Variant. N Engl J Med. 2021;385(7):585-94.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2108891  PMID: 34289274 
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Joint Statement from HHS Public Health and Medical Experts on COVID-19 Booster Shots. Atlanta: CDC. 18 Aug 2021. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2021/s0818-covid-19-booster-shots.html
  20. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Interim public health considerations for the provision of additional COVID-19 vaccine doses, 1 September 2021. Stockholm: ECDC; 2021. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/Interim-public-health-considerations-for-the-provision-of-additional-COVID-19-vaccine-doses.pdf
  21. Lewnard JA, Patel MM, Jewell NP, Verani JR, Kobayashi M, Tenforde MW, et al. Theoretical framework for retrospective studies of the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Epidemiology. 2021;32(4):508-17.  https://doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000001366  PMID: 34001753 

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary data

Submit comment
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error