Announcements
Eurosurveillance remains in the updated list of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). It was first added to the DOAJ on 9 September 2004. Eurosurveillance is also listed in the Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access / Rights MEtadata for Open archiving (SHERPA/RoMEO) [2], a database which uses a colour‐coding scheme to classify publishers according to their self‐archiving policy and to show the copyright and open access self-archiving policies of academic journals. Eurosurveillance is listed there as a ‘green’ journal, which means that authors can archive pre-print (i.e. pre-refereeing), post-print (i.e. final draft post-refereeing) and archive the publisher's version/PDF.

Follow Eurosurveillance on Twitter: @Eurosurveillanc

Read our articles on Zika virus infection

Note of concern published for 'Epidemiological investigation of MERS-CoV spread in a single hospital in South Korea, May to June 2015', http://bit.ly/29QFXPp


In this issue


Home Eurosurveillance Weekly Release  2001: Volume 5/ Issue 27 Article 3
Back to Table of Contents
Previous

Eurosurveillance, Volume 5, Issue 27, 05 July 2001
Articles

Citation style for this article: Gill ON. Ninth annual report from the UK National CJD Surveillance Unit. Euro Surveill. 2001;5(27):pii=1724. Available online: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=1724

Ninth annual report from the UK National CJD Surveillance Unit

The latest surveillance report on the incidence of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) situation, including variant-CJD (vCJD), in the United Kingdom (UK) was published last week (1) and is available from the National CJD Surveillance Unit (http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk). The report provides a detailed overview of the situation for all forms of CJD.

By the end of 2000, there had been 84 deaths from definite or probable vCJD in the UK (in addition two probable cases died in January 2001 and a further seven probable cases remained alive as at 31 January 2001). The estimated annual increase in incidence of vCJD is 1.35 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.61). The predicted total number of deaths for 2001, assuming this trend continues, is 36 (21 to 58). By the end of June 2001 the total number of definite and probable cases of vCJD reported in the UK had reached 102 (2).

Of the 84 deaths to end 2000, 75 were confirmed neuropathologically, with a further two awaiting neuropathological confirmation. The clinical, neuropathological and epidemiological features of all these cases of vCJD are remarkably uniform and consistent with previous descriptions. A case of neuropathologically confirmed vCJD in an individual who died aged 74 years in October 1999 significantly extends the known age range for vCJD.

Analysis by standard region suggests that the incidence of vCJD in the "North" of Great Britain may be higher than in the "South"; rate ratio (north v south) based on place of residence in 1991 was 1.81 (1.20 to 2.74). The mean Carstairs' deprivation score for areas of residence of people with vCJD was –0.41 (–1.02 to 0.19), which is close to the national average of zero. Regional rates of vCJD were correlated with consumption of other meat or meat products as classified and recorded by the Household Food Consumption and Expenditure Survey (r=0.73), but not with similar data from the Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults. Investigators of the five cases of vCJD in Leicestershire that formed a cluster concluded that the purchase and consumption of beef in the early 1980s from butcher’s shops where the meat could have been contaminated with brain tissue from cattle affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) provided a plausible explanation for the cluster (3,4).

Risk factors for the development of vCJD include age, residence in the UK, and methionine homozygosity at codon 129 of the prion protein gene – 87 cases of vCJD with available genetic analysis have all been methionine homozygotes. The analyses in the ninth annual report do not provide conclusive evidence of an increased risk of vCJD associated with past surgery, previous blood transfusion, occupation, or a range of dietary factors. The power of the case-control study from which these results are derived is, however, limited by the comparatively small number of cases and controls. For some putative risk factors, such as blood transfusion or surgery, it may be many years before an accurate assessment of risk can be made because of the likely prolonged incubation periods.

From 1990 to 2000 death rates from sporadic CJD in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland were 0.75 per million per year, 0.86/1000 000/year, 1.00/1000 000/year, and 0.46/million/year, respectively; these rate differences were not significant (P=0.3). The rates are similar to those observed in other countries in Europe and elsewhere in the world, including countries that are free of BSE. The variation seen in the observed death rates between different parts of the UK was not significant (P=0.5). There was no convincing evidence of space-time clustering. Since 1990 the average annual incidence of sporadic CJD has been higher than earlier. Whether this increase in incidence is due to improved case ascertainment or is a real reflection of an underlying incidence rise is impossible to say with certainty.

Between 1970 and 2000, 42 cases of iatrogenic CJD have been ascertained, six in recipients of dura mater implants, 35 in recipients of human derived growth hormone (hGH), and one in a recipient of human gonadotrophin (hGN). The mean age at death of the hGH/hGN group was 29 years (range 20-45 years) and for the dura mater recipients 43 years (27-59 years). The first recognised case in a dura mater recipient died in 1979, and the first hGH related death was in 1985.

References :
  1. The National CJD Surveillance Unit. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease surveillance in the UK – Ninth annual report 2000. Edinburgh: National CJD Surveillance Unit, 2001. (http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk)
  2. Monthly Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease figures. Department of Health, press release 2 July 2001.
  3. Report on Leicestershire vCJD cluster published. Eurosurveillance Weekly 2001; 5: 010322.
  4. Bryant G, Monk P. Summary of the final report of the investigation into the North Leicestershire cluster of variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease. Leicester: Leicestershire NHS Health Authority, 2001. Available online at <http://www.leics-ha.org.uk/>.

Reported by Noël Gill (ngill@phls.org.uk), Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, England.

back to top



Back to Table of Contents
Previous

The publisher’s policy on data collection and use of cookies.

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed by authors contributing to Eurosurveillance do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) or the editorial team or the institutions with which the authors are affiliated. Neither ECDC nor any person acting on behalf of ECDC is responsible for the use that might be made of the information in this journal. The information provided on the Eurosurveillance site is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between a patient/site visitor and his/her physician. Our website does not host any form of commercial advertisement. Except where otherwise stated, all manuscripts published after 1 January 2016 will be published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence. You are free to share and adapt the material, but you must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the licence, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

Eurosurveillance [ISSN] - ©2007-2016. All rights reserved
 

This website is certified by Health On the Net Foundation. Click to verify. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information:
verify here.