Conjunctivitis caused by coxsackievirus A24 let to around 100,000 medical consultations on Réunion Island from January to April 2015
Eurosurveillance, Volume 21, Issue 26, 30 June 2016
Table of Contents
The mcr-1 gene was found in 11 isolates from a Portuguese Salmonella collection (n = 1,010; 58 serotypes; 2002–15) of clinical samples, foodstuff, food-animals and water. Mcr-1 has been located on different plasmids (IncX4/IncHI2) in pig-associated multidrug-resistant, copper-tolerant S.1,4,,12:i:-/ST34 and S.Rissen/ST469 clones from human and pork products since at least 2011. Our data highlight dissemination of mcr-1 by successful resistant clones in Europe and raise questions about the efficacy of copper-based interventions to reduce colistin use.
Zika virus RNA presence in serum, whole-blood and urine samples from six Israeli travellers symptomatic for Zika virus disease was examined. Whole-blood samples were positive for as late as 2 months (58 days) post-symptom onset, longer than for urine (26 days) and serum (3 days). These findings suggest the utility of whole blood in Zika infection diagnosis.
From January to April 2015, Réunion experienced a major outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) caused by coxsackievirus A24, which heavily impacted the healthcare system. According to the general practitioners’ (GP) sentinel network, the number of medical consultations due to conjunctivitis during this period was estimated at ca 100,000. This report describes the characteristics of the outbreak, which were obtained through several different yet complementary surveillance systems on the island. These included the network of hospital emergency departments (OSCOUR network), the GPs’ sentinel network, an Internet-based population cohort (‘Koman i lé’) participating in a survey on distinct symptoms including ‘red eyes’ and the monitoring of eye drop sales. Overall the results of the different surveillance approaches were in good agreement regarding the outbreak dynamic. A peak of patients with conjunctivitis was detected in the first 15 days of March (week 10 and 11), coinciding with increased eye drop sales on the island. Strains recovered from outbreak cases belonged to genotype IV and were most closely related to strains identified in AHC outbreaks in China, Egypt and Japan since 2010. Continued surveillance of AHC in Réunion remains important not only locally, but also because frequent exchanges between the island and mainland France may lead to introduction of this virus in Europe.
We provide a representative analysis of antibiotic prescribing, identify factors associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing and assess the costs associated with antibiotic use in adult outpatients in Greece. Outpatient antibiotic prescriptions for patients older than 19 years between 2010 and 2013 in Greece were extracted from the IMS Health Xponent database. Prescribing rate and total cost for prescribed antibiotics were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors related to broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing. More than 20 million antibiotics were prescribed during the study period, an annual rate of 768 prescribed antibiotics per 1,000 adults. Overall, 33.5% of antibiotics were prescribed for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) for which antibiotics are often not indicated. Macrolides (29.9%), cephalosporins (26.9%) and fluoroquinolones (21.0%) were the most commonly prescribed antibiotic classes. The majority (89.0%) of antibiotics were broad-spectrum. Antibiotic expenditures were approximately EUR 185 million during the study period. Factors associated with broad-spectrum prescribing included older patient age, specialty pulmonologists or otorhinolaryngologists, training in eastern Europe, diagnosis of ARTI, acute diagnosis, and first episode of disease. Broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for ARTIs is common in adult Greek outpatients and frequently inappropriate. These data indicate the need for initiatives aiming to control antibiotic prescribing.
Eurosurveillance Edition: 30 June 2016
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