Announcements
Eurosurveillance remains in the updated list of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). It was first added to the DOAJ on 9 September 2004. Eurosurveillance is also listed in the Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access / Rights MEtadata for Open archiving (SHERPA/RoMEO) [2], a database which uses a colour‐coding scheme to classify publishers according to their self‐archiving policy and to show the copyright and open access self-archiving policies of academic journals. Eurosurveillance is listed there as a ‘green’ journal, which means that authors can archive pre-print (i.e. pre-refereeing), post-print (i.e. final draft post-refereeing) and archive the publisher's version/PDF.

ESCAIDE participants are invited to the fifth Eurosurveillance scientific seminar on 30 November 2016

Follow Eurosurveillance on Twitter: @Eurosurveillanc

Read our articles on Zika virus infection

Read our articles on mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance

Note of concern published for 'Epidemiological investigation of MERS-CoV spread in a single hospital in South Korea, May to June 2015', http://bit.ly/29QFXPp


In this issue


Home Eurosurveillance Edition  2009: Volume 14/ Issue 24 Article 1
Back to Table of Contents
Download (pdf)
Next

Eurosurveillance, Volume 14, Issue 24, 18 June 2009
Editorials
Influenza A(H1N1)v in the southern hemisphere - lessons to learn for Europe?
  1. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden

Citation style for this article: Depoortere E, Mantero J, Lenglet A, Kreidl P, Coulombier D. Influenza A(H1N1)v in the southern hemisphere - lessons to learn for Europe?. Euro Surveill. 2009;14(24):pii=19246. Available online: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19246
Date of submission: 17 June 2009

Outside the tropics, influenza infections show seasonal patterns which depend on the latitude but appear not to be influenced by longitude. The factors influencing this seasonality are not yet fully understood, but indoor crowding, lower temperatures, decreased humidity and reduced levels of sunlight are believed to influence both transmission and host susceptibility [1]. Seasonal influenza typically occurs between November and March in the northern hemisphere, and between April and September in the southern hemisphere. However, a temporal overlap of influenza activity between both hemispheres has been described [2]. In tropical regions influenza occurs year-round; it remains unclear whether tropical regions serve as reservoir for the epidemics in both hemispheres.  

During seasonal epidemics, dominant strains of influenza virus are described, that may vary within a hemisphere, and in their impact on morbidity. During the 2007-08 influenza season for example, the dominant strain circulating in Europe was seasonal influenza A(H1N1), whereas in the Americas influenza A(H3N2) was dominant [3,4].

Although they occur in distinct periods of the year, influenza strains circulating in the two hemispheres are not independent of each other. This is one of the reasons why the production of the seasonal influenza includes virological information from the circulating strains in both hemispheres. The recommendations for the composition of seasonal influenza vaccines are published twice annually by the World Health Organization before the start of the season in the respective hemispheres, usually in February and September [5].

Considering the interaction of seasonal influenza activity between the northern and southern hemisphere, we can expect the virus to behave similarly in terms of attack rates, clinical spectrum of illness and risk factors for severity. This gives an opportunity to countries in the northern hemisphere to learn from experiences in the southern hemisphere and prepare accordingly.

Current influenza situation in Chile and Australia

Large parts of Chile and Australia are located in the temperate area of the southern hemisphere, with a defined influenza season and the majority of cases occurring between May to September. Both countries have an established seasonal influenza surveillance system [6,7]. Chile documents significant levels of influenza activity every two to four years, while Australia has reported a general increase in both influenza-like illness and influenza laboratory notifications in recent years.

In the past weeks, corresponding with the start of the influenza season in the southern hemisphere, both countries experienced a steep increase in reported cases of influenza A(H1N1)v. Chile reported its first cases in mid-May: small clusters (consisting of between two and six cases) in different schools as well as three cases having travelled back from the Dominican Republic. By the end of May, 11 of the 15 administrative regions in the country had reported cases [8]. On 12 June the total number of cases was 2,335, including two deaths; the majority (66%) of infections occurred in persons 5-19 years of age, and 2% were considered severe, requiring hospitalisation [9]. In Australia, the first case of A(H1N1)v was confirmed on 8 May, three weeks later all eight jurisdictions of Australia reported laboratory confirmed cases. By 16 June, Australia reported 1,965 cases country-wide, of which 62% were from Victoria [10].
Chile and Australia responded to the first cases of influenza A(H1N1)v by implementing a ‘containment’ strategy. Following the rapidly evolving epidemiological situation, Chile changed to a ‘mitigation’ strategy by the end of May (two weeks after the first case report). Australia changed its strategy initially in the most affected state of Victoria, where a modified ‘sustain’ phase was implemented [11,12]. On 17 June, the country started moving into a new ‘protect’ phase, taking into account the less severe clinical characteristics of the current pandemic [13]. This change in strategy impacted among others the laboratory testing strategies, focusing mainly on the early detection and adequate treatment of (potentially) severe cases.

What lessons can we learn from the present situation in Chile and Australia?

As with seasonal influenza in the past years, the influenza A(H1N1)v situation in the winter period in the southern hemisphere is likely to reveal what can be expected in the winter in the northern hemisphere. Even if the season in the southern hemisphere has only started and there are only limited data on the influenza A(H1N1)v situation available, some early conclusions can be drawn already. However, it will be even more important for the northern hemisphere countries, including those in Europe, to continue monitoring the situation in the coming weeks closely, to gain further knowledge on populations most affected, risk factors for developing severe illness, changes in the virus’ virulence, transmissibility, and susceptibility to anti-viral drugs, as well as the impact of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical public health measures.

The current trend in the number of cases reported in Australia and Chile, which are rapidly increasing and coinciding with the influenza season, is different from what is being observed in Europe, where progression still seems to be slower and/or delayed. In Europe, influenza activity can be expected to remain on a low level during the northern summer months, whereas a steep increase, as seen currently in Australia and Chile, might be observed at the start of the influenza season in Europe around September. Both Chile and Australia rapidly moved from containment to mitigation or sustaining strategies.

The approach of the European Member States over the past few weeks has been to implement intense containment measures, including active case finding and tracing of contacts, isolation of cases and contacts, and antiviral treatment and prophylaxis. These measures were pertinent in reaction to the first appearance of the new virus in Europe. However, it is unclear if these efforts will still be sustainable in the coming winter season when the virus is likely to be widely circulating on the continent. It can be expected that countries will implement different measures depending on the national epidemiological and virological situation.

What additional information is needed to be able to respond adequately?

Studies on the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical public health measures from the southern hemisphere will be important, even though caution is recommended when comparing to countries with different healthcare systems, population density and social structures. In addition, the behaviour of other seasonal influenza viruses in terms of co-circulation and predominance of one strain versus the other will be closely monitored. In Chile, in week 21, 90% of the circulating influenza virus detected was due to influenza A(H1N1)v and in week 22 in the United States, the proportion was 89% [14,15]. The predominance of the pandemic strain over other influenza strains is a phenomenon that has been observed in previous pandemics [16]. If this will also become true for other southern countries, the same can be expected in the northern hemisphere and public health measures, including vaccination and treatment, will need to be adapted accordingly.

Since its detection in April this year, a lot of information on the epidemiology and virology of the new influenza A(H1N1)v virus has become available, mainly from Mexico and the United States. However, this information reflected the initial spread of the virus, which may not be representative for the coming winter season. Hence, monitoring the situation in the southern winter period will help to better anticipate, and therefore prepare, for the northern winter and its influenza season. However, some of the findings might need careful interpretation and cannot necessarily be generalised for Europe. International efforts should aim at supporting countries in the southern hemisphere in their response to the pandemic, resulting in a mutual benefit: additional resources for the south, allowing in-depth and targeted investigations, and increased epidemiological understanding for the north, allowing better preparedness for the expected winter peak. 


References

  1. Nguyen-Van-Tam B-J. Epidemiology of Influenza. In: KG Nicholson RW, AJ Hay, ed. Textbook of Influenza. Malden: Blackwell Science 1998:181–206.
  2. Finkelman BS, Viboud C, Koelle K, Ferrari MJ, Bharti N, Grenfell BT. Global patterns in seasonal activity of influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1, and B from 1997 to 2005: viral coexistence and latitudinal gradients. PloS One. 2007;2(12):e1296.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Influenza Activity - United States and worldwide, 2007-08 season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57(25):692-7.
  4. Lackenby A, Hungnes O, Dudman SG, Meijer A, Paget WJ, Hay AJ, et al. Emergence of resistance to oseltamivir among influenza A(H1N1) viruses in Europe. Euro Surveill. 2008;13(5):pii=8026. Available from: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=8026
  5. World Health Organization (WHO). Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition. Northern hemisphere, 2007-2008. Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/vaccinerecommendations1/en/
  6. Australian Government. Department of Health and Ageing. Communicable Diseases Intelligence (CDI). Surveillance systems reported in CDI, 2008. CDI. 2008;32(1).
  7. Chile Ministry of Health. Vigilancia de Influenza: Informe situación 2008. [Surveillance of influenza: situation report 2008]. [In Spanish]. [Accessed 17 June 2009]. Available from: http://epi.minsal.cl/epi/html/bolets/reportes/Influenza/InfluenzaAnual2008.pdf
  8. Chile Ministry of Health. Informes diarios de prensa sobre Influenza A (H1N1) en Chile, Mayo-Junio 2009 [Daily situation updates, 26 April May- 5 June 2009]. [In Spanish]. [Accessed 17 June 2009]. Available from: http://www.pandemia.cl/
  9. Chile Ministry of Health. Informe situación de infección por nueva influenza A(H1N1) en Chile al 11 de Junio de 2009. [Situation report for the new influenza A (H1N1) in Chile on 11 June, 2009]. [In Spanish]. [Accessed 17 June 2009]. Available from: http://www.pandemia.cl/pagnew/prensa/REPORTE_12_06_09.pdf
  10. Australian Government, Department of Health and Ageing. National tally of confirmed cases of H1N1 influenza 09, as at 5 pm, 6 June 2009. [Accessed 17 June 2009]. Available from: http://www.healthemergency.gov.au/internet/healthemergency/publishing.nsf/Content/3C952C84F7A3AE5BCA2575CE006F0F48/$File/H1N1%20Influenza%2009%2012pm%2010%20June.pdf.
  11. Australian Government. Department of Health and Ageing. Previous advice from the Chief Medical Officer. 9 June 2009. [Cited 12 June 2009]. Available from: http://www.healthemergency.gov.au/internet/healthemergency/publishing.nsf/Content/prev-adv-cmo
  12. Chile Ministry of Health. Guía clínica para el manejo de casos
    Nueva Influenza Humana A (H1N1) (IHA H1N1). Etapa de Mitigación. Fecha: 09-06-09. [Clinical guideline for case management: New Human Influenza A (H1N1) (IHA H1N1): Mitigation phase. 9 June 2009.]. [In Spanish]. [Accessed 17 June 2009]. Available from: http://www.pandemia.cl/pagnew/profsalud/Guia_clinica_Manejo_de_caso.pdf
  13. Australian Government. Department of Health and Ageing. New pandemic phase "protect". [Accessed 17 June 2009]. Available from: http://www.healthemergency.gov.au/internet/healthemergency/publishing.nsf/Content/news-170609
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2008-2009 Influenza Season Week 22 ending June 6, 2009. CDC 12 June 2009. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/
  15. Chile Ministry of Health. Nueva Influenza A-H1N1: Próximo lunes comienza etapa de mitigación [New influenza A(H1N1): the mitigation phase starts next Monday]. [In Spanish]. 27 May 2009. Available from: http://www.redsalud.gov.cl/noticias/noticias.php?id_n=445&show=5-2009
  16. Taubenberger JK Morens DM. 1918 influenza: the mother of all pandemics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006; 12(1):15-22.

 



Back to Table of Contents
Download (pdf)
Next

The publisher’s policy on data collection and use of cookies.

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed by authors contributing to Eurosurveillance do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) or the editorial team or the institutions with which the authors are affiliated. Neither ECDC nor any person acting on behalf of ECDC is responsible for the use that might be made of the information in this journal. The information provided on the Eurosurveillance site is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between a patient/site visitor and his/her physician. Our website does not host any form of commercial advertisement. Except where otherwise stated, all manuscripts published after 1 January 2016 will be published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence. You are free to share and adapt the material, but you must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the licence, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

Eurosurveillance [ISSN 1560-7917] - ©2007-2016. All rights reserved.
 

This website is certified by Health On the Net Foundation. Click to verify. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information:
verify here.