We express our gratitude to the European Surveillance System data management team, especially Adrian Prodan and Gaetan Guyodo, for technical implementation of the pilot reporting scheme. We would also like to thank Pasi Penttinen, Julien Beaute, Phillip Zucs, Denis Coulombier and Mike Catchpole for their valuable comments.
We acknowledge the European Influenza Surveillance Network for their tireless work to improve influenza surveillance in European Untion/European Economic Area countries.
Specific country acknowledgements
Belgium: Anneleen Hombrouck (NIC, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Belgium), the sentinel general practitioners and the sentinel hospitals involved in the severe acute respiratory infections surveillance.
Finland: Outi Lyytikäinen and Satu Murtopuro (Infectious Disease Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki). The physicians and nurses of the sentinel network sites and intensive care units who provided respiratory specimens.
Germany: Barbara Biere, Susanne Duwe and Marianne Wedde (National Influenza Reference Centre, Robert Koch Institut, Berlin, Germany), technical staff, and all participating sentinel general practitioners and virologists.
Greece: Andreas F. Mentis (National Influenza Reference Laboratory of Southern Greece, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens), Georgia Spala (Hellenic Center for Disease Control & Prevention).
Ireland: Lisa Domegan, Heath Protection Surveillance Centre, Dublin, Ireland.
Italy: The Influnet laboratory network: Elisabetta Pagani (Azienda Sanitaria Alto Adige, Bolzano), Valeria Ghisetti (“Amedeo di Savoi” Hospital, Torino), Alessandro Zanetti (University of Milano), Fausto Baldanti (IRCCS Policlinico “San Matteo”, Pavia), Giorgio Palù (University of Padova), Pierlanfranco D’Agaro (University of Trieste), Filippo Ansaldi (University of Genova), Paola Affanni (University of Parma), Alberta Azzi (University of Firenze), Barbara Camilloni (University of Perugia), Maurizio Sanguinetti (“Cattolica S. Cuore” University of Roma), Maria Chironna (University of Bari), Caterina Serra (University of Sassari), Francesco Vitale (University of Palermo). Angela Di Martino, Annapina Palmieri, Marzia Facchini, Laura Calzoletti and Concetta Fabiani (National Influenza Centre, ISS).
The Netherlands: Guus Rimmelzwaan (NIC location Erasmus MC, Rotterdam), Gé Donkers (NIVEL Netherlands institute for health services research, Utrecht), Marit de Lange (National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven), technical personnel, all participating sentinel general practitioners and their patients and virologists in the country.
Norway: The Norwegian medical microbiology laboratories and participants of the Norwegian influenza virus sentinel programme who provided samples for surveillance and further characterisation, the staff of the NIC for virus characterisation work and Torstein Aune for facilitating the strain-based reporting data pipeline.
Portugal: Pedro Pechirra, Paula Cristovão, Patrícia Conde (Portuguese Influenza Reference Laboratory, Department of Infectious Diseases, National Intitute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge), Baltazar Nunes, Ana Paula Rodrigues, Ausenda Machado, Inês Baptista (Department of Epidemiology National Intitute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge). All members of the GP Sentinel Network, Emergency/Obstetric Units Network, EuroEva Project Network and Portuguese Laboratory Network for Influenza Diagnosis.
Spain: All the sentinel general practitioners, epidemiologists and virologists of the Spanish Influenza Surveillance System (SISS). Sequences from Spain were obtained in the Centro Nacional de Microbiología (ISCIII) from influenza viruses sent by the following laboratories: Hospital Virgen de las Nieves de Granada- Andalucía, Hospital Miguel Servet de Zaragoza- Aragón, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias de Oviedo-Asturias, Hospital Son Espases de Palma de Mallorca-Baleares, Hospital Dr. Negrín de Las Palmas-Canarias, Consejería de Sanidad de Castilla la Mancha, Hospital San Pedro de Alcántara de Cáceres-Extremadura, Hospital Meixoeiro de Vigo and Hospital Santa María Nai de Ourense-Galicia, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal-Madrid, Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca-Murcia, Clínica Universitaria de Navarra y Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Hospital Donostia-País Vasco, Hospital San Pedro-La Rioja, Hospital de INGESA-Ceuta and Consejería de Bienestar Social y Sanidad-Melilla.
Sweden: The Swedish regional laboratories and participants of the Swedish sentinel programme who provided samples for surveillance and further characterisation.
Finally, we thank the authors and the laboratories which originated and submitted the sequences from the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data’s (GISAID) EpiFlu Database on which this research is based. All submitters of data may be contacted directly via the GISAID website, www.gisaid.org.