The new Eurosurveillance website is almost here.

Eurosurveillance is on the updated list of the Directory of Open Access Journals and in the SHERPA/RoMEO database. Read more here.

On 6 June 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) published updates to its ‘Essential Medicines List’ (EML). Read more here.

Follow Eurosurveillance on Twitter: @Eurosurveillanc

In this issue

Home Eurosurveillance Edition  2008: Volume 13/ Issue 5 Article 2
Back to Table of Contents
Previous Download (pdf)

Eurosurveillance, Volume 13, Issue 5, 31 January 2008
Rapid communications
Emergence of resistance to oseltamivir among influenza A(H1N1) viruses in Europe
  1. Health Protection Agency, Centre for Infection, London, United Kingdom
  2. Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
  3. EISS Coordination Centre, Nivel Institute, Utrecht, the Netherlands
  4. National Centre for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands
  5. WHO Collaborating Centre, MRC National Institute of Medical Research, London, United Kingdom

Citation style for this article: Lackenby A, Hungnes O, Dudman SG, Meijer A, Paget WJ, Hay AJ, Zambon MC. Emergence of resistance to oseltamivir among influenza A(H1N1) viruses in Europe. Euro Surveill. 2008;13(5):pii=8026. Available online:


Surveillance of the antiviral susceptibility of influenza viruses circulating in Europe has been established since 2004 through the European Union-funded European Surveillance Network for Vigilance against Viral Resistance (VIRGIL), in collaboration with the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS), the World Health Organization (WHO) and national influenza centres. Results from analysis of early winter (November 2007 – January 2008) A(H1N1) virus isolates has revealed that a significant proportion, approximately 14% of these European strains (see Table), are resistant to oseltamivir (Tamiflu), the most widely used anti-influenza drug, but retain sensitivity to zanamivir (Relenza) and amantadine/rimantadine.

As of week 03/2008, 16 European countries have reported significant influenza activity (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Northern Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain and Switzerland). Of the total virus detections since week 40/2007 (N=3447), 81% have been influenza A and 19% influenza B, and the predominant viruses circulating in most countries have been A(H1N1) similar to the A/Solomon Islands/3/2007 vaccine strain [1]. The presence of oseltamivir-resistant viruses circulating in the community in several European countries (Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom) is in marked contrast to the previous winter seasons of 2004/2005, 2005/2006, and 2006/2007, when oseltamivir resistance was detected in <1% of circulating strains from 24 countries.

A total of 437 influenza A(H1N1) viruses, isolated between November 2007 and January 2008, were tested using measurement of neuraminidase (NA) enzyme activity in the presence of oseltamivir to determine the drug-sensitivity (IC50) of the viral enzyme (2) in conjunction with sequence analysis of the viral neuraminidase gene. To date, oseltamivir-resistant viruses have been detected in nine countries (Table 1); in particular, 26 of 37 (70%) in Norway, 15 of 87(17%) in France, 3 of 43 (7.0%) in Germany and 8 of 162(5%) in the United Kingdom carry the same mutation, causing the substitution of histidine by tyrosine at residue 274 (H274Y) of the neuraminidase, which is known to confer a high level resistance to oseltamivir. Viruses bearing this mutation, when tested in enzyme assays, showed a reduction of approximately 400 fold in susceptibility to oseltamivir (IC50 values increased from approximately 1nM to more than 400nM). All these viruses remain sensitive to the other anti-neuraminidase drug zanamivir and to the anti-M2 drugs amantadine and rimantadine.

The resistant (H274Y) viruses have been isolated from both adults and children, ranging from 1 month to 61 years in age, with the majority of viruses being isolated from adults. So far, there is no information that any of these viruses, in any country, has been obtained from a person who has either been treated or been in close contact with another individual who has been treated with oseltamivir. We therefore conclude that the identification of these oseltamivir-resistant viruses as a substantial proportion of circulating viruses, particularly in Norway, is the first clear evidence that influenza A(H1N1) virus with the H274Y mutation can readily transmit between individuals.

More extensive surveillance within Europe and in other parts of the world is required to establish the relative prevalence and geographical distribution of these resistant viruses, and to evaluate their potential impact on the effectiveness of drug use. The spectrum of clinical illness associated with infection by oseltamivir-resistant viruses remains to be fully determined, although limited information from initial clinical cases does not suggest unusual disease syndromes. Although the resistant viruses have been isolated from November through January, the ability of these viruses to persist throughout the influenza season, and from one season to the next, will require continuous world-wide surveillance by the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network. Determining the origins and genesis of these drug-resistant strains, which appear to have emerged in regions of the world where there is little drug pressure, will be important in understanding the emergence and persistence of oseltamivir resistance in relation to the evolution of influenza viruses and drug use.

Acknowledgements: We would like thank all members of EISS laboratories for contributing viruses and data, particularly VIRGIL colleagues Dr Bruno Lina (Lyon) and Dr Sylvie van der Werf (Paris). Funding support from EU FP6 Programme for VIRGIL Contract No 503359.


  1. European Influenza Surveillance Scheme. Increased influenza activity in Europe. EISS Weekly Electronic Bulletin 2008; 25 January 2008: 250. Available from:
  2. Methodology used for testing in vitro susceptibility of influenza viruses to oseltamivir and zanamivir was described by the Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Network (NISN) in Wetherall et al, J Clin Microl. 2003;41;742-50. Surveillance of the antiviral susceptibility of influenza viruses circulating in Europe is supported by the EU-funded VIRGIL programme (Contract No 503359), in collaboration with EISS and the WHO.


Back to Table of Contents
Previous Download (pdf)

The publisher’s policy on data collection and use of cookies.

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed by authors contributing to Eurosurveillance do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) or the editorial team or the institutions with which the authors are affiliated. Neither ECDC nor any person acting on behalf of ECDC is responsible for the use that might be made of the information in this journal. The information provided on the Eurosurveillance site is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between a patient/site visitor and his/her physician. Our website does not host any form of commercial advertisement. Except where otherwise stated, all manuscripts published after 1 January 2016 will be published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence. You are free to share and adapt the material, but you must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the licence, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

Eurosurveillance [ISSN] - ©2007-2016. All rights reserved

This website is certified by Health On the Net Foundation. Click to verify. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information:
verify here.