1887
Perspective Open Access
Like 0

Abstract

The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease occurred in West Africa in 2014 and resulted in unprecedented transmission even in distant countries. In Japan, only nine individuals were screened for Ebola and there was no confirmed case. However, the government promoted the reinforcement of response measures and interagency collaboration, with training and simulation exercises conducted country-wide. The legacies included: publication of a communication policy on case disclosure, a protocol for collaboration between public health and other agencies, and establishing an expert committee to assemble the limited available expertise. There were challenges in taking proportionate and flexible measures in the management of people identified to be at high risk at entry points to Japan, in the decentralised medical response strategy, and in the medical countermeasures preparedness. The Ebola outbreak in West Africa provided a crucial opportunity to reveal the challenges and improve the preparedness for rare but high impact emerging diseases that are prone to be neglected. Efforts to uphold the lessons learnt and maintain public health preparedness should help prepare for future emerging diseases, including bioterrorist acts and pandemics.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2015.20.44.30056
2015-11-05
2017-11-19
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2015.20.44.30056
Loading
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/eurosurveillance/20/44/eurosurv-20-44-4.html?itemId=/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2015.20.44.30056&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Briand S, Bertherat E, Cox P, Formenty P, Kieny MP, Myhre JK, et al. The international Ebola emergency. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(13):1180-3.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1409858  PMID: 25140855 
  2. Lópaz MA, Amela C, Ordobas M, Domínguez-Berjon MF, Álvarez C, Martínez M, et al. Working group of Ebola outbreak investigation team of Madrid. First secondary case of Ebola outside Africa: epidemiological characteristics and contact monitoring, Spain, September to November 2014. Euro Surveill. 2015;20(1):21003.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES2015.20.1.21003  PMID: 25613651 
  3. Chevalier MS, Chung W, Smith J, Weil LM, Hughes SM, Joyner SN, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Ebola virus disease cluster in the United States--Dallas County, Texas, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(46):1087-8. PMID: 25412069 
  4. Hirabayashi Y, Oka S, Goto H, Shimada K, Kurata T, Fisher-Hoch SP, et al. An imported case of Lassa fever with late appearance of polyserositis. J Infect Dis. 1988;158(4):872-5.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/158.4.872  PMID: 3171229 
  5. Paragraph 2, Article 6, Act on Prevention of Infectious Diseases and Medical Care for Patients of Infections. Act No.114 of 1998. [Accessed 3 November 2015]. Japanese. Available from: http://law.e-gov.go.jp/htmldata/H10/H10HO114.html
  6. Ministry of Justice. Immigration Control Statistics. [Accessed 3 November 2015]. Japanese. Available from: http://www.e-stat.go.jp
  7. Saito T, Fukushima K, Abe K, Ujiie M, Umeki K, Nakajima K. Response to Ebola virus disease by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Virus.2015;65(1):104-14.
  8. Ohshiro Y, Shinzato T. A falciparum malaria case who visited a community hospital after returning from West Africa. Infectious Agents Surveillance Report.2014;35:274-5.
  9. Press Release from the Tuberculosis and Infectious Disease Control, Health Bureau, Office of Quarantine Station Administration, Policy Planning and Communication Division, Department of Food Safety, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. [Response to Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever at quarantine and in the country.]. 21 November 2014. Japanese. Available from: http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/houdou/0000066099.html
  10. A man visited Liberia developed fever, Guinean lady in Kansai Airport, tested for Ebola. Nihon Keizai Shinbun. 8 November 2014 8. 13th edition; Sect. local news. Japanese.
  11. Saito T, Fukushima K, Umeki K, Nakajima K. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Japan and public health communication. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):487-9.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140831  PMID: 25695132 
  12. Intergovernmental Coordination Meeting on EVD measures. Response to Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever in Japan–Response so far and preparedness for the future –. Second Intergovernmental Coordination Meeting on EVD measures. 24 February 2015. Japanese. Available from: http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/ebola/
  13. Notification the Tuberculosis and Infectious Disease Control Division, Health Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. (No. 1128-1). [Collaboration of fire departments for a transport of a confirmed or probable case of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever.] 28 November 2014. Japanese. Available from: http://www.mhlw.go.jp/bunya/kenkou/kekkaku-kansenshou19/dl/20141128_01.pdf
  14. Notification from Community Police Affairs Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency (No. 171). [Cooperation on transport of clinical samples and patients related to Class1 Infectious Diseases (circular notice).] 30 October 2014. Japanese.
  15. Official Statistics of Japan. Population Estimates by Age (5 Year Age Group) and Sex - May 1, 2015(Final estimates), October 1, 2015(Provisional estimates). Available from: http://www.e-stat.go.jp/SG1/estat/ListE.do?lid=000001138964
  16. Takeda Y, Nomura T. [Future Direction of Medical Care System for Patients with Infectious Diseases Control Law in Japan – centering around a category 1 hospital]. Japanese. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2000;74(9):687-93.  https://doi.org/10.11150/kansenshogakuzasshi1970.74.687  PMID: 11068360 
  17. Research group for clinical management and contact tracing of viral hemorrhagic fevers in Japan. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers: Guidance for Clinical Management. First edition. March 2014. Japanese.
  18. Oestereich L, Lüdtke A, Wurr S, Rieger T, Muñoz-Fontela C, Günther S. Successful treatment of advanced Ebola virus infection with T-705 (favipiravir) in a small animal model. Antiviral Res. 2014;105:17-21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.02.014  PMID: 24583123 
  19. Government of Japan. Answers for Memorandum of Questions No. 33 of House of Councillors, the 187th National Diet of Japan. 28 October 2014. Japanese. Available from: http://www.sangiin.go.jp/japanese/joho1/kousei/syuisyo/187/touh/t187033.htm
  20. Government of Japan. Answers for Memorandum of Questions No. 29 of House of Representatives, the 187th National Diet of Japan. 24 October 2014. Japanese. Available from: http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/itdb_shitsumon.nsf/html/shitsumon/a187029.htm
  21. Summary of post-cabinet meeting press conference by Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare. 15 August 2014. Available from: http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/kaiken/daijin/0000054819.html. Japanese.
  22. Summary of the Expert Committee for treatment of Category 1 Infectious Diseases. 24 October 2013.http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/shingi2/0000063142.html
  23. Tuberculosis and Infectious Disease Control Division, Health Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The first review meeting on Class I infectious diseases. 20 October 2015. Japanese. Available from: http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/shingi2/0000101839.html
  24. National Institute for Infectious Diseases. Interim Manual of active epidemiological investigation for EVD. November 21, 2014. Japanese. Available from: http://www.nih.go.jp/niid/images/epi/ebola/1121.pdf
/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2015.20.44.30056
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Comment has been disabled for this content
Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error