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Abstract

The prevalence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) at the intensive care unit (ICU) is unknown and difficult to assess since IA also develops in patients lacking specific host factors. In the Netherlands, increasing azole-resistance in complicates treatment of patients with IA. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of IA by azole-resistant at the ICU among patients receiving antifungal treatment and to follow their clinical outcome and prognosis. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a university hospital ICU from January 2010 to December 2013. From all patients who received antifungal treatment for suspected IA, relevant clinical and microbiological data were collected using a standardised questionnaire. Of 9,121 admitted ICU-patients, 136 had received antifungal treatment for suspected IA, of which 38 had a positive culture. Ten of the 38 patients harboured at least one azole-resistant isolate. Resistance mechanisms consisted of alterations in the cyp51A gene, more specific TR/L98H and TR/T289A/Y121F. Microsatellite typing did not show clonal relatedness, though isolates from two patients were genetically related. The overall 90-day mortality of patients with IA by azole-resistant and patients with suspicion of IA by azole-susceptible isolates in the ICU was 100% (10/10) vs 82% (23/28) respectively. We conclude that the changing pattern of IA in ICU patients requires appropriate criteria for recognition, diagnosis and rapid resistance tests. The increase in azole resistance rates also challenges a reconsideration of empirical antifungal therapy.

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/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.30.30300
2016-07-28
2017-11-23
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.30.30300
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