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The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in the United States has published a report containing revised guidelines for HIV counselling, testing, and referral (CTR), and revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women (1). The CTR guidelines replace the existing 1994 guidelines (2) and contain recommendations for policy-makers and service providers of HIV CTR. The revised recommendations for HIV screening for pregnant women replace the 1995 guidelines (3). The revision was prompted by recent advances in both HIV CTR and HIV treatment and prevention and clinical advances in preventing perinatally acquired HIV.


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