For authors

Eurosurveillance is a weekly electronic publication. It is published online every Thursday (with the exception of e-alerts). The current issue's table of contents is sent by email to all subscribers who sign up to receive the weekly alert. Pdf versions of the weekly issues as well as the individual articles can be downloaded from the Eurosurveillance website from the week following publication. 

In addition to the online publication, special issues and topical compilations of selected material from the online issues are published in printed form with a limited number of copies. 

Article formats

Rapid communications

Rapid communications are timely, authoritative short reports on important communicable disease findings and events where rapid dissemination of information could potentially lead to a prompt change in an ongoing public health situation or create awareness for topics we consider to be of timely relevance. These articles are usually published within two weeks from submission, but when necessary, publication can be arranged within hours of submission (see e-alerts). They undergo rapid independent peer review by at least one expert in the field. 

To allow for such rapid processing, these articles are short, usually around 1,200 words, and have a minimum of eight and up to about 20 references and four illustrations (figures or tables). The abstract should not exceed 75 words. 

Rapid communications should not have an IMRaD (Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion) structure. Subheadings as appropriate for the content should be used instead and rapid communications should start with a brief description of the current event (a few lines only) and the aim of the study. Necessary background information should be integrated with the discussion where authors put their data into context with other data for their country and Europe, and other relevant literature. 

E-alerts are published ad hoc to disseminate information about an important event that should not wait until the next regular publication of Eurosurveillance

Regular articles

Research articles provide original results from studies on any aspect of communicable disease epidemiology, prevention and control. These papers should include new data or insights of public health importance and consist of ca 3,500 words, a minimum of 15 and up to around 30 references and six illustrations (figures or tables). We encourage authors to follow the CONSORT guidelines for reporting randomised controlled trials. Research articles should usually follow the IMRaD structure (Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion) and have a structured abstract that should not exceed 250 words.

Surveillance and outbreak reports: Surveillance articles should focus on epidemiological trends regarding a specific disease or a group of diseases with data from a national or international surveillance system, but they could also be an analysis of a surveillance system or a description of a new surveillance system.

Outbreak reports on national or international outbreaks should be submitted once fully investigated and focus on new or unexpected aspects and on lessons learnt. They should have the following structure: A Background that describes very briefly the pathogen and its transmission, puts the outbreak into context in terms of incidence in Europe and/or in the country or region. The following Outbreak detection passage should describe details of the signal followed by what is presented in the report. The Methods should present the data source(s), case definition, epidemiological (case−control study etc.) and environmental/trace-back investigations as well as microbiological investigations. Data should be analysed by sex and where applicable gender. Results should be presented in a similar sequence as methods and an epicurve and – where applicable, a graphical timeline for the sequence of events should be added. A specific Outbreak control measures section should present measures taken and highlight the difficulties encountered and/or the successes following their implementation. The Discussion should put the findings into (European) perspective and highlight lessons learnt.

The length of the Surveillance and outbreak reports is up to ca 3,500 words, with a minimum of 15 and up to around 30 references and six illustrations (figures or tables) and the abstract should not exceed 200 words. We encourage authors to follow the STROBE guidelines that were set up for observational studies i.e. case−control, cohort and cross-sectional studies.

Review articles provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of issues of major public health importance within the field of communicable disease surveillance, prevention or control. They usually are about 4,000 words in length, and contain up to 80 references and six illustrations (figures or tables). All review articles should explain the search strategy and selection criteria, justify the inclusion/exclusion of material and state the sources. Review articles should have a structured abstract that should not exceed 250 words. 

For systematic reviews, we encourage authors to follow the PRISMA guidelines.

Euroroundups should provide an analysis of a contemporary specific aspect or function of communicable disease surveillance, prevention or control in at least five European countries, and present an in-depth comparison of systems and/or data. The average length of these articles is 3,500 words with a minimum of 15 and up to around 30 references and six illustrations (figures or tables). The abstract should not exceed 200 words.

Perspectives provide an insightful analysis of practices, policies and guidance on communicable disease prevention and control, as well as guidance on developments in the field of vaccines and immunisation. These articles have an average length of ca 2,000 words, and contain a minimum of 10 and up to 20 references and four illustrations (figures or tables). They do not follow an IMRaD structure and are structured by meaningful subheadings. The abstract should not exceed 200 words.

Other material

The following materials are not peer-reviewed. However, we may consult an expert for advice on the content of such items. 

Editorials are written by experts invited to comment on articles and special topics covered by Eurosurveillance and usually have a maximum of two authors. Editorials are usually 1,500 words long and contain a maximum of 20 references and four illustrations (figures or tables). 

Letters to the editor comment on recent Eurosurveillance articles and should be submitted within 12 weeks after the publication of the article in question. They are intended to stimulate scientific discussion and are not a format for the publication of original data. Their average length is 600 words, with five or fewer references. 

Meeting reports should provide a synopsis of the content of the presentations and have up to 2,000 words, 10 references (including, when possible, links to full reports of conference activities) and no illustrations. Before submitting a meeting report, please contact the editorial team. 

Addenda provide new information after publication of an article in cases where such information is relevant but has no bearing on the study outcome and conclusions. Moreover, the information should neither have been available at the time of publication of the article nor justify the publication of a second full article. Addenda should be very short and may contain maximum one illustration.

For example:

Addendum for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(46)

Eurosurveillance editorial team

In the article entitled ‘Outbreak of enterovirus D68 of the new B3 lineage in Stockholm, Sweden, August to September 2016’ by R Dyrdak et al., published on 17 November 2016, the GenBank accession numbers of the enterovirus D68 sequences were added on 23 November 2016 at the request of the authors.

How to submit material

All submissions should be sent through the Eurosurveillance online submission system. An online author tutorial is available, if you have any difficulties during the submission process. 

In the submission system you will have to provide the following information: 

  • the article category;
  • a declaration that the material is original and has not been submitted elsewhere;
  • a declaration that all authors have seen and approved the final manuscript;
  • a declaration that the corresponding author, on behalf of all co-authors, has read and agreed to the terms of the Eurosurveillance data protection notice;
  • a declaration that informed consent has been obtained from persons whose details are described in articles (or from the persons’ guardians) that this information may be published;
  • a statement on funding and potential competing interests of the authors;
  • where appropriate, information on approval of the work by an ethics committee;
  • proof of permission to use figures or tables that are adapted or reproduced from other publications.

The following material should be uploaded as separate files: 

  • a Title page (Word format) including the title, authors (please ensure that the first name is given in full), affiliations (including equal contributions if applicable), corresponding author information, abstract (use the heading 'Abstract' on the previous line); this document will be used to populate the relevant fields;
  • a covering letter;
  • an anonymised manuscript text in Word format (pdf files cannot be evaluated) without line numbers and with a minimum of eight references for rapid communications and 15 for regular articles. All author-identifiable information – authors’ names, affiliations and contributions as well as any acknowledgements – should NOT be included in the document. No illustrations (figures or tables) should be included in this document;
  • if a collective author is included (e.g. a working group or disease-specific network) and if the persons comprising the group are to be included at the end of the article, please list them in the relevant field; the contribution of the collective author should be stated in the Authors' contributions section which will be published at the end of the article;
  • all figures in an appropriate format (see details in the section on formatting and style); The following file formats are automatically converted into the PDF: Word, RTF, TXT, LaTeX2e, AMSTex, TIFF, GIF, JPEG, EPS, Postscript, PICT, PDF, Excel, and PowerPoint. Other file types are not automatically supported, but can be included as hyperlink items in the PDF file;
  • all tables in Word format;
  • a scan of the agreement with authors signed by the corresponding author on behalf of all authors.

File names of uploaded files must not contain any author-identifiable information that may lead to identification of the author.

After all files and information have been uploaded in the submission system, the corresponding author is responsible for checking and approving the pdf. Approval of the pdf is required for the article to be sent to the editorial office.

Submissions should conform to the Recommendation for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly work in Medical Journals, detailed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors

Supplementary material 

Materials that are not essential for the reader to understand the methodology and results of an article, and to follow the logic of the text, can be submitted as supplementary materials. Such materials may comprise questionnaires, search strategies for systematic reviews, models, sensitivity analyses etc. that help increase transparency and reproducibility of presented findings. Large sets of raw data are generally not considered supplementary materials and these should be deposited preferably in publically funded open access repositories that would allow citing them. Supplementary material should not be used for additional discussion, analysis, or interpretations of the findings in the article.

Supplementary materials will be made available on the Eurosurveillance website alongside the article, on behalf of the authors who remain responsible for the accuracy of the content. If any of the supplemental material has been previously published, the authors are responsible for obtaining the required permissions and attributing the source material. The supplementary materials will not be edited.

Authors may submit PDFs, Excel files and audio-visual materials. They should be referred to in the manuscript as numbered supplements (Supplement 1 etc.).

The supplements should be headed with a short descriptive title and contain the following disclaimer:

"This supplementary material is hosted by Eurosurveillance as supporting information alongside the article [Title] on behalf of the authors who remain responsible for the accuracy and appropriateness of the content. The same standards for ethics, copyright, attributions and permissions as for the article apply. Eurosurveillance is not responsible for the maintenance of any links or email addresses provided therein."

Please note: a name should not be displayed upon submission because Eurosurveillance uses double-blind review and reviewers will have access to the supplementary material. Supplementary materials should be submitted in English unless otherwise agreed with the editorial team. Authors should format the text and tables etc. using the following instructions: Supplement style and formats. The length of supplementary materials should be reasonable and generally not exceed 20 pages in total. The supplementary materials will not undergo formal peer review. They will be made available to reviewers as supporting information and the editors expect authors to take possible reviewer comments into account where appropriate. Models submitted as supplementary materials will undergo an initial check by board members with respective expertise before they are sent together with the manuscript to the peer-reviewers.

These materials are not included in the manuscript maximum word and reference counts and reviewers will be asked systematically if the submitted article contains passages that can become supplementary material. They will be also asked if materials submitted as supplement are essential for the reader to understand the methodology and results and should be moved into the manuscript.

Formatting and style

Articles should be written in clear, appropriate and scientific language that is free of jargon. Avoid abbreviations when possible and define them when you first use them. Please use United Kingdom English spelling. 

Titles should be interesting, informative, accurate and as short as possible. They should contain the place/country and the time period covered in the paper. 

Keywords: A maximum of eight keywords suitable for indexing should be provided. Please select from the list provided and add others if needed. Separate the keywords by a semi-colon (;). 

Abstracts of regular articles should stay within the limit of 150 to 250 words, those of rapid communications should not exceed 75 words. Abstracts for research articles and reviews should be structured. 

Main text: An introduction should put the topic into perspective using up-to-date references, and clearly state the objective of the work and its relevance. The relevant methods should be presented at an appropriate level of detail; molecular diagnostic techniques that are published or standard, for example, can be named and referenced and do not need to be described in detail. It is important to make it clear at all times which results are the work of the authors, presented as part of the article, and which are already known and given as background or for comparison. If tables and figures are provided, the text should shortly describe and summarise the content, but not unnecessarily repeat the information; the reader should be able to understand text and illustrations independently of each other. The European and international relevance should be discussed with relevant references, and where appropriate, lessons learnt and recommendations for the future should be presented. 

Tables and figures

Tables and figures are inserted after the paragraph in which they are mentioned. 

Any references given in them are numbered after the citations in the text, i.e. the numbering does not take into account the position of the table or figure in the text. 

Figure/table titles should not contain abbreviations and be as short as possible and mention the disease, place and date as well as number of cases/samples shown, so that it can be clearly understood what is shown. Further information needed to understand the figure or table is presented in the footnote under the illustration, together with explanations of all abbreviations and information on the source of the data. Footnotes added to specific entries in the table or figure are numbered as superscript a, b, c, etc. in order of appearance. The reader should be able to understand an illustration without referring to explanations in the text. 

Tables and figures that have already been published can only be accepted under specific circumstances. In such cases the authors are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the illustration in question. Copyright also needs to be observed, for example, for maps used as a background for entering data. 

Tables should be sent in Word format. They must be uploaded as separate files. 

All figures should be uploaded as separate, editable files. Graphs should be provided in Excel format. If that is not possible, graphs, as well as phylogenetic trees etc, have to be submitted as vector files such as .pdf, .eps, .wmf, .emf, .svg. All the programmes used to create graphs should be able to export a file in at least one of these formats. Not all pdfs are vector files: Illustrations should be exported as a pdf directly from the programme in which they were created, rather than exporting the illustration in another format and then subsequently saving as a pdf. 

Pictures of illustrations simply copied into the above formats cannot be used because they cannot be edited. We need the illustration to be linked to the original data. Bitmap files (.jpg, .bmp, .gif, etc) are not acceptable. Maps should be provided as vector files (.pdf, .eps, .wmf, .emf, .svg). Preferably the maps should not include bitmap elements (i.e. map as a picture in the background). Only photographs should be given as high-resolution bitmap files (.jpg, .tif, etc.). They should be provided as stand-alone original files, and not included in Word or PowerPoint documents. 

Data in Eurosurveillance are not usually displayed in pie charts. Unless otherwise agreed with the editor, please choose a different type of graph. 


Citations are numbered in the order of appearance in the text. Reference numbers are placed in square brackets [1] in the text. References cited in a table or figure legend should be numbered after the citations in the text. 

Papers that are accepted for publication can be cited as forthcoming. Papers not yet accepted for publication cannot be cited. The source of such information can be indicated in parentheses in the text, either as data not shown, if the information comes from one of the authors, or as personal communication, if the information comes from someone else. Personal communications must include the name of the person and the date the communication took place. 

References should be formatted according to the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals’(Vancouver style). Do not use italics, bold or underlining. 

#. Author of article AA, Author of article BB, Author of article CC. Title of article. Abbreviated Title of Journal. Year;vol(issue):page number(s). 

For example: 

1. Geck MJ, Yoo S, Wang JC. Assessment of cervical ligamentous injury in trauma patients using MRI. J Spinal Disord. 2001;14(5):371-7. 

If there are more than six authors, list the first six authors followed by et al. For example: 

1. Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6. 

More samples of reference formats can be seen at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html 

Authors and acknowledgements

All listed authors should have made substantive intellectual contributions to the article, be aware of its submission to Eurosurveillance and able to account for its content. The contribution of each author to the article must be stated: this information will be shown at the end of the published article. 

We do not limit the number of authors, but for the rapid communications it may be more appropriate to list the names of people who have not contributed directly to the production of the article in the acknowledgements. You may acknowledge anyone who has helped you with any aspect of the report, but it is always the corresponding author’s responsibility to obtain permission from anyone being acknowledged.

Please include complete information about each author (full name, affiliation and the name of the institution, city and country in which the work was done). Clearly identify and provide telephone number and email address for the corresponding author. 

In our submission system, authors can also include an ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID), if they have one. We encourage authors to use this system.

It is possible to provide a collective name as an author (working group, disease-specific network, etc.). The members of such a group can be listed at the end of the article and will appear in PubMed/MEDLINE indexation. In the online submission system, the corresponding author will be asked whether there is a collective author and for any names of members of the group or network to be listed. 

A statement on funding for the work described in the manuscript should be included.

GISAID sequences

Although the database of the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) is publicly accessible, attention should be paid to correct attribution of the data used. You should acknowledge the authors, originating and submitting laboratories of the sequences from GISAID’s EpiFlu™ Data base on which the research is based, and to refer to the GISAID website (www.gisaid.org). In addition to an appropriate acknowledgement, we recommend including a table in the Methods section, listing all sequences with the respective background information, unless there is an unmanageable number of them. Examples of how to do this can be found here: Article 1, Article 2 

Overlapping publications

Eurosurveillance allows authors to submit material that has previously been published if dissemination would be beneficial from a scientific or public health perspective to a wider readership that cannot read the primary publication or has limited access to it. For example, material previously published in a language other than English. Such publication will mainly be considered for short articles on topics that have been previously covered in the bulletins of the national surveillance institutes. Eurosurveillance aims to add value to these publications, usually by widening the discussion to include other European countries, and including additional references. Clear reference to the previous publication needs to be made in order to avoid duplicate publication as defined by the ICMJE.

Through its rapid communications, Eurosurveillance has a long-standing experience in disseminating information that may have immediate implications for public health. A longer article that expands on preliminary findings previously covered in a rapid communication might be considered as an individual publication. Furthermore, the editors may accept summary articles based on longer reports or guidelines by public health authorities and similar organisations, in order to make them available in English and support as wide as possible dissemination of important information to different target audiences. 

It should be clear however, from the submission that the material has been published elsewhere, and where appropriate, permission from the editor/publisher of the primary publication must be sought and documented in advance. If published, the primary publication should be clearly acknowledged with a reference and, where possible, web link to the original material.

Prospective authors should consult the guidelines on ‘Overlapping Publications’ in the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly work in Medical Journals

Secondary publications are subject to the normal Eurosurveillance review process.


The editorial team should be informed immediately of any errata or corrections to be made. Such changes are made immediately in the original article as well as the pdf, together with an editorial note explaining the nature and date of the change. 

Contacting the editorial team

If you have any questions about Eurosurveillance, please contact our editorial team at [email protected]

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