Systematic Review Open Access
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International travel is considered to be an important risk factor for acquisition of multidrug-resistant (MRE). The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effect of international travel on the risk of post-travel faecal carriage of MRE. Secondary outcomes were risk factors for acquisition of MRE. A systematic search for relevant literature in seven international databases was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Articles needed to report on (i) foreign travel, (ii) screening of asymptomatic participants, (iii) antimicrobial susceptibility data and (iv) faecal carriage. Two researchers independently screened the abstracts, assessed the full article texts for eligibility and selected or rejected them for inclusion in the systematic review. In case of disagreement, a third researcher decided on inclusion. Eleven studies were identified. In all studies, a high prevalence (> 20%) of carriage of MRE after international travel was found. The highest prevalence was observed in travellers returning from southern Asia. Foreign travel was associated with an increased risk of carriage of MRE. Further research is needed to assess if this leads to an increase in the number of infections with MRE. Systematic review registration number: PROSPERO CRD42015024973.


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