Rapid communication Open Access
Like 0


Colistin resistance was detected in 53 of 10,011 (0.5%) by prospective phenotypic testing of consecutive clinical isolates in a single hospital in Barcelona, Spain (2012–15). The gene was retrospectively identified by PCR and sequencing in 15 of 50 available isolates. Each isolate had a unique PFGE pattern except for two. This clonal diversity supports the hypothesis of horizontal dissemination of the gene in the local study population.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Liu YY, Wang Y, Walsh TR, Yi LX, Zhang R, Spencer J, et al. Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular biological study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16(2):161-8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00424-7  PMID: 26603172 
  2. Haenni M, Poirel L, Kieffer N, Châtre P, Saras E, Métayer V, et al. Co-occurrence of extended spectrum β lactamase and MCR-1 encoding genes on plasmids. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16(3):281-2.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(16)00007-4  PMID: 26774244 
  3. Hasman H, Hammerum AM, Hansen F, Hendriksen RS, Olesen B, Agersø Y, et al. Detection of mcr-1 encoding plasmid-mediated colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from human bloodstream infection and imported chicken meat, Denmark 2015. Euro Surveill. 2015;20(49):30085.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2015.20.49.30085  PMID: 26676364 
  4. Kluytmans-van den Bergh MF, Huizinga P, Bonten MJ, Bos M, De Bruyne K, Friedrich AW, et al. Presence of mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in retail chicken meat but not in humans in the Netherlands since 2009. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(9):30149.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.9.30149  PMID: 26967540 
  5. Skov RL, Monnet DL. Plasmid-mediated colistin resistance (mcr-1 gene): three months later, the story unfolds. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(9):30155.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.9.30155  PMID: 26967914 
  6. Arcilla MS, van Hattem JM, Matamoros S, Melles DC, Penders J, de Jong MD, et al. Dissemination of the mcr-1 colistin resistance gene. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16(2):147-9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00541-1  PMID: 26711361 
  7. Poirel L, Kieffer N, Liassine N, Thanh D, Nordmann P. Plasmid-mediated carbapenem and colistin resistance in a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16(3):281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(16)00006-2  PMID: 26774246 
  8. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; twentieth informational supplement. Wayne, PA: CLSI; 2012. CLSI document M100-S22.
  9. European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters. EUCAST; 2016. Available from: http://www.eucast.org/clinical_breakpoints/
  10. Magiorakos AP, Srinivasan A, Carey RB, Carmeli Y, Falagas ME, Giske CG, et al. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18(3):268-81.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03570.x  PMID: 21793988 
  11. Bradford PA, Kazmierczak KM, Biedenbach DJ, Wise MG, Hackel M, Sahm DF. Correlation of β-lactamase production and colistin resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolates from a global surveillance program. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;60(3):1385-92.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01870-15  PMID: 26666920 
  12. 12Olaitan AO, Morand S, Rolain JM. Mechanisms of polymyxin resistance: acquired and intrinsic resistance in bacteria. Front Microbiol. 2014;5:643.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00643  PMID: 25505462 
  13. Olaitan AO, Chabou S, Okdah L, Morand S, Rolain J-M. Dissemination of the mcr-1 colistin resistance gene. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16(2):147.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00540-X 
  14. Humphries RM. Susceptibility testing of the polymyxins: where are we now? Pharmacotherapy. 2015;35(1):22-7.  https://doi.org/10.1002/phar.1505  PMID: 25329490 
  15. Catry B, Cavaleri M, Baptiste K, Grave K, Grein K, Holm A, et al. Use of colistin-containing products within the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA): development of resistance in animals and possible impact on human and animal health. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2015;46(3):297-306.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2015.06.005  PMID: 26215780 
  16. European Medicines Agency (EMA). Sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents in 26 EU/EEA countries in 2013. Fifth ESVAC report ESVAC. EMA/387934/2015. London: EMA; 2015. Available from: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Report/2015/10/WC500195687.pdf
  17. de Jong A, Thomas V, Klein U, Marion H, Moyaert H, Simjee S, et al. Pan-European resistance monitoring programmes encompassing food-borne bacteria and target pathogens of food-producing and companion animals. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2013;41(5):403-9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2012.11.004  PMID: 23394810 

Data & Media loading...

Submit comment
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error