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In France, the proportion of episodes of carbapenemase-producing (CPE) with no recent stay or hospitalisation abroad is increasing. In this study, we investigate epidemiological links between apparently unrelated cases of OXA-48-producing (Kp OXA-48) colonisation or infection. We genotyped detected organisms by repetitive sequence-based PCR, and used a dynamic registry of cases and contacts to cross-reference patients' hospital stays. Between 1 November 2012 and 28 February 2014, 23 Kp OXA-48 cases were detected in a university hospital in Montpellier, of which 15 were involved in three outbreaks: outbreaks I and II occurred in November 2012 and outbreak III in October 2013. Molecular comparison of bacterial strains revealed clonal identity between cases involved in outbreaks II and III and four single cases. Cross-referencing of hospital stays revealed that these single cases and the index case of outbreak III had occupied the same room. Active case search among former occupants of that room found an additional Kp OXA-48 carrier. A clonal strain was isolated from the sink of that room. The epidemiological link between the contaminated room and outbreak II remained undetected. This study is a reminder that environmental reservoirs should be considered as a source of CPE transmission.


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