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Implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the Netherlands (PCV7 in 2006 and PCV10 in 2011) for infants caused a shift in serotypes in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We explored sex differences in serotype-specific IPD incidence before and after vaccine introduction. Incidences in the pre-PCV7 (June 2004–May 2006), post-PCV7 (June 2008–May 2011) and post-PCV10 period (June 2013–May 2015), stratified by age, were compared. Incidence was higher in men for all age groups (overall in men: 16.7, 15.5 and 14.4/100,000 and women: 15.4, 13.6 and 13.9/100,000 pre-PCV7, post-PCV7 and post-PCV10, respectively), except for 20–39 year-olds after PCV7 and 40–64 year-olds after PCV10 introduction. After PCV7 and PCV10 introduction, the overall IPD incidence decreased in men aged 20–39 years (from 5.3 pre-PCV7 to 4.7 and 2.6/100,000 post-PCV7 and post-PCV10, respectively), whereas it showed a temporary increase in women (from 3.9/100,000 pre-PCV7 to 5.0/100,000 post-PCV7 and back to 4.0/100,000 post-PCV10) due to replacement disease. PCV10 herd effects were observed throughout, but in women older than 40 years, a significant increase in non-PCV10 serotype offset a decrease in overall IPD incidence. Ongoing surveillance of IPD incidence by sex is important to evaluate the long-term effects of PCV implementation.


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