Rapid communication Open Access
Like 0


A new rapid assay for detecting oseltamivir resistance in influenza virus, iART, was used to test 149 clinical specimens. Results were obtained for 132, with iART indicating 41 as ‘resistant’. For these, sequence analysis found known and suspected markers of oseltamivir resistance, while no such markers were detected for the remaining 91 samples. Viruses isolated from the 41 specimens showed reduced or highly reduced inhibition by neuraminidase inhibition assay. iART may facilitate broader antiviral resistance testing.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Oh DY, Hurt AC. A Review of the Antiviral Susceptibility of Human and Avian Influenza Viruses over the Last Decade. Scientifica (Cairo). 2014;2014:430629.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/430629  PMID: 24800107 
  2. Samson M, Pizzorno A, Abed Y, Boivin G. Influenza virus resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors. Antiviral Res. 2013;98(2):174-85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.03.014  PMID: 23523943 
  3. Takashita E, Kiso M, Fujisaki S, Yokoyama M, Nakamura K, Shirakura M, et al. Characterization of a large cluster of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses cross-resistant to oseltamivir and peramivir during the 2013-2014 influenza season in Japan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;59(5):2607-17.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.04836-14  PMID: 25691635 
  4. Okomo-Adhiambo M, Fry AM, Su S, Nguyen HT, Elal AA, Negron E, et al. 2013–14 US Influenza Antiviral Working Group. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, United States, 2013-14. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):136-41.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141006  PMID: 25532050 
  5. Hurt AC, Hardie K, Wilson NJ, Deng YM, Osbourn M, Leang SK, et al. Characteristics of a widespread community cluster of H275Y oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza in Australia. J Infect Dis. 2012;206(2):148-57.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jis337  PMID: 22561367 
  6. Matsuzaki Y, Mizuta K, Aoki Y, Suto A, Abiko C, Sanjoh K, et al. A two-year survey of the oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) virus in Yamagata, Japan and the clinical effectiveness of oseltamivir and zanamivir. Virol J. 2010;7(1):53.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-7-53  PMID: 20202225 
  7. Kawai N, Ikematsu H, Hirotsu N, Maeda T, Kawashima T, Tanaka O, et al. Clinical effectiveness of oseltamivir and zanamivir for treatment of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 with the H274Y mutation: a Japanese, multicenter study of the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 influenza seasons. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49(12):1828-35.  https://doi.org/10.1086/648424  PMID: 19911968 
  8. Nguyen HT, Fry AM, Gubareva LV. Neuraminidase inhibitor resistance in influenza viruses and laboratory testing methods. Antivir Ther. 2012;17(1 Pt B):159-73.  https://doi.org/10.3851/IMP2067  PMID: 22311680 
  9. Meetings of the WHO working group on surveillance of influenza antiviral susceptibility – Geneva, November 2011 and June 2012. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2012;87(39):369-74. PMID: 23061103 
  10. Meijer A, Rebelo-de-Andrade H, Correia V, Besselaar T, Drager-Dayal R, Fry A, et al. Global update on the susceptibility of human influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors, 2012-2013. Antiviral Res. 2014;110:31-41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.07.001  PMID: 25043638 
  11. Takashita E, Meijer A, Lackenby A, Gubareva L, Rebelo-de-Andrade H, Besselaar T, et al. Global update on the susceptibility of human influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors, 2013-2014. Antiviral Res. 2015;117:27-38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2015.02.003  PMID: 25721488 
  12. Thompson CI, Lackenby A, Daniels RS, McCauley JW, Pereyaslov D, Broberg EK, et al. Evaluation of influenza virus antiviral susceptibility testing in Europe: results from the first external quality assessment exercise. J Clin Virol. 2013;56(3):212-8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2012.11.005  PMID: 23201459 
  13. Okomo-Adhiambo M, Mishin VP, Sleeman K, Saguar E, Guevara H, Reisdorf E, et al. Standardizing the influenza neuraminidase inhibition assay among United States public health laboratories conducting virological surveillance. Antiviral Res. 2016;128:28-35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2016.01.009  PMID: 26808479 
  14. Marjuki H, Mishin VP, Sleeman K, Okomo-Adhiambo M, Sheu TG, Guo L, et al. Bioluminescence-based neuraminidase inhibition assay for monitoring influenza virus drug susceptibility in clinical specimens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57(11):5209-15.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01086-13  PMID: 23917311 
  15. Tamura D, DeBiasi RL, Okomo-Adhiambo M, Mishin VP, Campbell AP, Loechelt B, et al. Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Variants in an Immunocompromised Child Treated With Oseltamivir and Zanamivir. J Infect Dis. 2015;212(8):1209-13.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiv245  PMID: 25943200 
  16. Fry AM, Goswami D, Nahar K, Sharmin AT, Rahman M, Gubareva L, et al. Efficacy of oseltamivir treatment started within 5 days of symptom onset to reduce influenza illness duration and virus shedding in an urban setting in Bangladesh: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14(2):109-18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70267-6  PMID: 24268590 

Data & Media loading...

Submit comment
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error