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To enable an up-to-date molecular analysis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genotypes circulating in Germany we have established a surveillance system based on recently acquired HIV infections. New HIV infections are reported to the Robert Koch Institute as a statutory duty for anonymous notification. In 2013 and 2014, a dried serum spot (DSS) sample was received from 6,371 newly diagnosed HIV-cases; their analysis suggested that 1,797 samples originated from a recent infection. Of these, 809 were successfully genotyped in the region to identify transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations and to determine the HIV-1 subtype. Total TDR was 10.8%, comprising 4.3% with mono-resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 2.6% to non-NRTIs, 3.0% to protease inhibitors and 0.6% and 0.2%, respectively, with dual- and triple-class resistances. HIV-1 subtype B was most prevalent with 77.0%. Non-B infections were identified more often in men and women with heterosexual transmission compared with intravenous drug users or men who have sex with men (79% and 76%, 33%, 12%; all p < 0.05). Non-B subtypes were also more frequently found in patients originating from countries other than Germany (46% vs 14%; p < 0.05) and in patients infected outside of Germany (63% vs 14%; p < 0.05).


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