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Current guidelines recommend hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing for HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) with ongoing risk behaviour, without specifying the type of risk behaviour. We developed and validated the HCV-MOSAIC risk score to assist HCV testing in HIV-infected MSM. The risk score consisted of six self-reported risk factors identified using multivariable logistic regression using data from the Dutch MOSAIC study (n = 213, 2009–2013). Area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, post-test-probability-of-disease and diagnostic gain were calculated. The risk score was validated in case–control studies from Belgium (n = 142, 2010–2013) and the United Kingdom (n = 190, 2003–2005) and in cross-sectional surveys at a Dutch sexually transmitted infections clinic (n = 284, 2007–2009). The AUC was 0.82; sensitivity 78.0% and specificity 78.6%. In the validation studies sensitivity ranged from 73.1% to 100% and specificity from 56.2% to 65.6%. The post-test-probability-of-disease ranged from 5.9% to 20.0% given acute HCV prevalence of 1.7% to 6.4%, yielding a diagnostic gain of 4.2% to 13.6%. The HCV-MOSAIC risk score can successfully identify HIV-infected MSM at risk for acute HCV infection. It could be a promising tool to improve HCV testing strategies in various settings.


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