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Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC-type beta-lactamases (ACBLs) and carbapenemases are among the most important resistance mechanisms in . This study investigated the presence of these resistance mechanisms in consecutive non-replicate isolates of (n = 2,352), (n = 697), and (n = 275) from an Italian nationwide cross-sectional survey carried out in October 2013. Overall, 15.3% of isolates were non-susceptible to extended-spectrum cephalosporins but susceptible to carbapenems (ESCR-carbaS), while 4.3% were also non-susceptible to carbapenems (ESCR-carbaR). ESCR-carbaS isolates were contributed by all three species, with higher proportions among isolates from inpatients (20.3%) but remarkable proportions also among those from outpatients (11.1%). Most ESCR-carbaS isolates were ESBL-positive (90.5%), and most of them were contributed by carrying group 1 genes. Acquired ACBLs were less common and mostly detected in . ESCR-carbaR isolates were mostly contributed by (25.1% and 7.7% among isolates from inpatients and outpatients, respectively), with as the most common carbapenemase gene. Results showed an increasing trend for both ESBL and carbapenemase producers in comparison with previous Italian surveys, also among outpatients.


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