Rapid communication Open Access
Like 0


Since December 2016, Brazil has faced a large outbreak of yellow fever with ca 1,500 confirmed human cases. In the first 2 months of 2018, Brazil reported almost as many cases as in 2017 as a whole. In these 2 months, five imported cases were reported among unvaccinated European travellers. Three had travelled to Ilha Grande, a popular destination among European tourists. Physicians and European travellers visiting Brazil should follow yellow fever vaccination recommendations.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Brazil Ministry of Health. Febre Amarela: Situação Epidemiológica / Dados. [Yellow fever. Epidemiological situation / Data]. Brasília: Ministry of Health. [Accessed 6 Mar 2018]. Portuguese. Available from: http://portalms.saude.gov.br/saude-de-a-z/febre-amarela-sintomas-transmissao-e-prevencao/situacao-epidemiologica-dados
  2. Cavalcante KR, Tauil PL. Epidemiological characteristics of yellow fever in Brazil, 2000-2012. Epidemiol Serv Saude. 2016;25(1):11-20. PMID: 27861674 
  3. Brazil Ministry of Health. Informe n° 17 | 2017/2018 - Monitoramento do Período Sazonal da Febre Amarela Brasil – 2017/2018. [Report 17. 2017/2018. Monitoring the season of yellow fever in Brazil – 2017/2018]. Brasília: Ministry of Health. 13 Mar 2018. Portuguese. Available from: http://portalarquivos2.saude.gov.br/images/pdf/2018/marco/14/Informe-FA-17.pdf
  4. Saad LD, Barata RB. Yellow fever outbreaks in São Paulo State, Brazil, 2000-2010. Epidemiol Serv Saude. 2016;25(3):531-40.  PMID: 27869924 
  5. Prefeitura de São Paulo. Parques das Zonas Sul e Oeste da capital são fechados por medida de precaução e vacinação será intensificada. [Parks in the southern and western regions are closed as precautionary measure and vaccination will be intensified]. São Paulo: Prefeitura de São Paulo. [Accessed 6 Mar 2018]. Portuguese. Available from: http://www.capital.sp.gov.br/noticia/parques-das-zonas-sul-e-oeste-da-capital-sao-fechados-por-medida-de-precaucao-e-vacinacao-sera-intensificada
  6. Globo.com. [Internet]. SP tem 15 parques fechados por prevenção contra a febre amarela; veja lista. [15 parks closed in São Paulo as prevention measure against yellow fever; see list]. São Paulo: Globo. [Accessed 6 Mar 2018]. Portuguese. Available from: https://g1.globo.com/sao-paulo/noticia/sp-tem-15-parques-fechados-por-prevencao-contra-a-febre-amarela-veja-lista.ghtml
  7. World Health Organization (WHO). Yellow fever – Brazil, Disease outbreak news. Geneva: WHO; 27 Feb 2018. Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/don/27-february-2018-yellow-fever-brazil/en/
  8. Couto-Lima D, Madec Y, Bersot MI, Campos SS, Motta MA, Santos FBD, et al. Potential risk of re-emergence of urban transmission of Yellow Fever virus in Brazil facilitated by competent Aedes populations. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):4848.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05186-3  PMID: 28687779 
  9. International Air Transport Association (IATA). Market Intelligence Services. Geneva: IATA. [Accessed 7 Mar 2018]. Available from: http://www.iata.org/services/statistics/intelligence/Pages/market-intelligence.aspx
  10. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Outbreak of yellow fever in Brazil, Second update, 18 January 2018. Stockholm: ECDC; 2018. Available from: https://ecdc.europa.eu/sites/portal/files/documents/18-01-2018-RRA-UPDATE-2-Yellow-fever-Brazil.pdf
  11. Rio de Janeiro Government. Informe Epidemiológico – Febre Amarela, 13 Mar 2018. [Epidemiological report – Yellow fever, 13 Mar 2018]. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro Government. 13 Mar 2018. Portuguese. Available from: http://www.febreamarelarj.com.br/comum/code/MostrarArquivo.php?C=NDY%2C
  12. Argentina Ministry of Health. Boletín Integrado de Vigilancia. N° 401 – SE 09 – Marzo de 2018. Monitoring bulletin. N 401 – SE 09. March 2018]. Buenos Aires: Ministry of Health; 5 Mar 2018. Spanish. Available from: http://www.msal.gob.ar/index.php/home/boletin-integrado-de-vigilancia
  13. ProMED-mail. PRO/ESP> Fiebre amarilla - Argentina: (BA) ex Brasil, turista no vacunada. 20180307.5671622. [PRO/ESP> Yellow fever - Argentina: (BA) ex Brasil, unvaccinated tourist. 20180307.5671622]. 7 Mar 2018. Spanish. Available from: http://www.promedmail.org/post/5671622
  14. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). VectorNet: A European network for sharing data on the geographic distribution of arthropod vectors, transmitting human and animal disease agents. Aedes albopictus current known distribution. Stockholm: ECDC; Jan 2018. Available from: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/aedes-albopictus-current-known-distribution-january-2018
  15. Amraoui F, Vazeille M, Failloux AB. French Aedes albopictus are able to transmit yellow fever virus. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(39):30361.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.39.30361  PMID: 27719755 
  16. Bacha HA, Johanson GH. Yellow fever. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2017;63(4):291-2. PMID: 28614526. http://dx.doi.org/ https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.63.04.291 
  17. World Health Organization (WHO). Yellow fever mass vaccination campaigns using fractional dose, Extract from report of GACVS meeting of 30 Nov -1 Dec 2016, published in the WHO Weekly Epidemiological Record on 13 Jan 2017. Geneva: WHO. [Accessed 6 Mar 2018]. Available from: http://www.who.int/vaccine_safety/committee/topics/yellow_fever/Dec_2016/en/
  18. World Health Organization (WHO). Yellow fever vaccination recommendations in the Americas, Geneva: WHO. [Accessed 7 Mar 2018]. Available from: http://www.who.int/ith/YF-Vaccination-map-americas.jpg?ua=1
  19. Public Health England (PHE). Yellow fever reported in traveller returning from Brazil. London: PHE; 15 Mar 2018. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/yellow-fever-reported-in-traveller-returning-from-brazil
  20. ProMED-mail. PRO/AH/EDR> Yellow fever - Americas (15): Brazil (RJ). 20180222.5643503. 20 Feb 2018. Available from: http://www.promedmail.org/post/5643503.

Data & Media loading...

Submit comment
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error