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Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an important European vaccine-preventable pathogen. Discrimination of vaccine-induced antibodies from those elicited by infection is important. We studied anti-TBEV IgM/IgG responses, including avidity and neutralisation, by multiplex serology in 50 TBEV patients and 50 TBEV vaccinees. Infection induced antibodies reactive to both whole virus (WV) and non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in 48 clinical cases, whereas 47 TBEV vaccinees had WV, but not NS1 antibodies, enabling efficient discrimination of infection/vaccination.


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