1887
Research article Open Access
Like 0

Abstract

Background and aim

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a virus of emerging importance to transfusion medicine. Studies from several European countries, including Switzerland, have reported high seroprevalence of hepatitis E as a consequence of endemic infections. Published HEV seroprevalence estimates within developed countries vary considerably; primarily due to improved diagnostic assays. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in Swiss blood donations. We used the highly sensitive Wantai HEV IgG EIA and assessed regional distribution patterns. We analysed age- and sex-matched archive plasma dating back 20 years from canton Bern to investigate recent changes in HEV seroprevalence levels. On average, 20.4% (95% confidence intervals: 19.1–21.8) of the 3,609 blood samples collected in 2014–16 were anti-HEV IgG positive; however, distinct differences between geographical regions were observed (range: 12.8–33.6%). Seroprevalence increased with age with 30.7% of males and 34.3% of women being positive donors over > 60 years old. Differences between sexes may be attributed to dissimilarities in the average age of this group. Within the specified region of the Bern canton, overall prevalence has declined over two decades from 30.3% in 1997/98 to 27.0% in 2006 and 22.3% in 2015/6. HEV seroprevalence in Switzerland is high, but has declined over the last decades. The result shows that primarily endemic HEV infections occur and that current blood products may pose a risk to vulnerable transfusion recipients. Nucleic acid screening of all blood products for HEV will begin in November 2018.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.35.1700616
2018-08-30
2019-05-27
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.35.1700616
Loading
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/eurosurveillance/23/35/eurosurv-23-35-3.html?itemId=/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.35.1700616&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Khuroo MS. Chronic liver disease after non-A, non-B hepatitis. Lancet. 1980;2(8199):860-1. . Available from  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(80)90205-6  PMID: 6107528 
  2. Khuroo MS. Discovery of hepatitis E: the epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis 30 years down the memory lane. Virus Res. 2011;161(1):3-14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2011.02.007  PMID: 21320558 
  3. Schlauder GG, Desai SM, Zanetti AR, Tassopoulos NC, Mushahwar IK. Novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates from Europe: evidence for additional genotypes of HEV. J Med Virol. 1999;57(3):243-51.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9071(199903)57:3<243::AID-JMV6>3.0.CO;2-R  PMID: 10022795 
  4. Clemente-Casares P, Pina S, Buti M, Jardi R, MartIn M, Bofill-Mas S, et al. Hepatitis E virus epidemiology in industrialized countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9(4):448-54.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0904.020351  PMID: 12702225 
  5. Kamar N, Bendall R, Legrand-Abravanel F, Xia NS, Ijaz S, Izopet J, et al. Hepatitis E. Lancet. 2012;379(9835):2477-88.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61849-7  PMID: 22549046 
  6. Meng XJ. Zoonotic and foodborne transmission of hepatitis E virus. Semin Liver Dis. 2013;33(1):41-9.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1338113  PMID: 23564388 
  7. Crossan C, Baker PJ, Craft J, Takeuchi Y, Dalton HR, Scobie L. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in shellfish, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2085-7.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120924  PMID: 23171845 
  8. Kokkinos P, Kozyra I, Lazic S, Bouwknegt M, Rutjes S, Willems K, et al. Harmonised investigation of the occurrence of human enteric viruses in the leafy green vegetable supply chain in three European countries. Food Environ Virol. 2012;4(4):179-91.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12560-012-9087-8  PMID: 23412890 
  9. Dalton HR, Kamar N, Izopet J. Hepatitis E in developed countries: current status and future perspectives. Future Microbiol. 2014;9(12):1361-72.  https://doi.org/10.2217/fmb.14.89  PMID: 25517900 
  10. Dalton HR, Hunter JG, Bendall RP. Hepatitis E. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013;26(5):471-8. PMID: 23982238 
  11. Salam GD, Kumar A, Kar P, Aggarwal S, Husain A, Sharma S. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in hepatitis E virus-related acute viral hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure in pregnant women. Hepatol Res. 2013;43(8):826-35.  https://doi.org/10.1111/hepr.12028  PMID: 23279190 
  12. Kamar N, Selves J, Mansuy JM, Ouezzani L, Péron JM, Guitard J, et al. Hepatitis E virus and chronic hepatitis in organ-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(8):811-7.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0706992  PMID: 18287603 
  13. Riezebos-Brilman A, Puchhammer-Stöckl E, van der Weide HY, Haagsma EB, Jaksch P, Bejvl I, et al. Chronic hepatitis E infection in lung transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2013;32(3):341-6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2012.11.027  PMID: 23415316 
  14. Khuroo MS, Kamili S, Yattoo GN. Hepatitis E virus infection may be transmitted through blood transfusions in an endemic area. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;19(7):778-84.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2004.03437.x  PMID: 15209625 
  15. Colson P, Coze C, Gallian P, Henry M, De Micco P, Tamalet C. Transfusion-associated hepatitis E, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):648-9.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061387  PMID: 17561564 
  16. Hewitt PE, Ijaz S, Brailsford SR, Brett R, Dicks S, Haywood B, et al. Hepatitis E virus in blood components: a prevalence and transmission study in southeast England. Lancet. 2014;384(9956):1766-73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61034-5  PMID: 25078306 
  17. Hogema BM, Molier M, Sjerps M, de Waal M, van Swieten P, van de Laar T, et al. Incidence and duration of hepatitis E virus infection in Dutch blood donors. Transfusion. 2016;56(3):722-8.  https://doi.org/10.1111/trf.13402  PMID: 26559806 
  18. Stramer SL, Moritz ED, Foster GA, Ong E, Linnen JM, Hogema BM, et al. Hepatitis E virus: seroprevalence and frequency of viral RNA detection among US blood donors. Transfusion. 2016;56(2):481-8.  https://doi.org/10.1111/trf.13355  PMID: 26434952 
  19. Ankcorn MJ, Tedder RS. Hepatitis E: the current state of play. Transfus Med. 2017;27(2):84-95.  https://doi.org/10.1111/tme.12405  PMID: 28382704 
  20. Mansuy JM, Gallian P, Dimeglio C, Saune K, Arnaud C, Pelletier B, et al. A nationwide survey of hepatitis E viral infection in French blood donors. Hepatology. 2016;63(4):1145-54.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.28436  PMID: 27008201 
  21. Bendall R, Ellis V, Ijaz S, Ali R, Dalton H. A comparison of two commercially available anti-HEV IgG kits and a re-evaluation of anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence data in developed countries. J Med Virol. 2010;82(5):799-805.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.21656  PMID: 20336757 
  22. Wenzel JJ, Preiss J, Schemmerer M, Huber B, Jilg W. Test performance characteristics of Anti-HEV IgG assays strongly influence hepatitis E seroprevalence estimates. J Infect Dis. 2013;207(3):497-500.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jis688  PMID: 23148290 
  23. Hartl J, Otto B, Madden RG, Webb G, Woolson KL, Kriston L, et al. Hepatitis E Seroprevalence in Europe: A Meta-Analysis. Viruses. 2016;8(8):211.  https://doi.org/10.3390/v8080211  PMID: 27509518 
  24. Schnegg A, Bürgisser P, André C, Kenfak-Foguena A, Canellini G, Moradpour D, et al. An analysis of the benefit of using HEV genotype 3 antigens in detecting anti-HEV IgG in a European population. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e62980.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062980  PMID: 23667554 
  25. Kaufmann A, Kenfak-Foguena A, André C, Canellini G, Bürgisser P, Moradpour D, et al. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence among blood donors in southwest Switzerland. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e21150.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021150  PMID: 21701586 
  26. Gottschalk J, Hardegger K, Darnuzer R, Frey B. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E virus in Swiss blood donors originating from the canton of Zürich. SGM-Jahrestagung; Interlaken 2013. Available from http://www.blutspendezurich.ch/Media/File/Archiv%20div.%20Daten/HEV%20SGM%202013%20Kompatibilit%C3%A4tsmodus.pdf
  27. Mansuy JM, Bendall R, Legrand-Abravanel F, Sauné K, Miédouge M, Ellis V, et al. Hepatitis E virus antibodies in blood donors, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(12):2309-12.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1712.110371  PMID: 22172156 
  28. Slot E, Hogema BM, Riezebos-Brilman A, Kok TM, Molier M, Zaaijer HL. Silent hepatitis E virus infection in Dutch blood donors, 2011 to 2012. Euro Surveill. 2013;18(31):20550.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES2013.18.31.20550  PMID: 23929229 
  29. Cleland A, Smith L, Crossan C, Blatchford O, Dalton HR, Scobie L, et al. Hepatitis E virus in Scottish blood donors. Vox Sang. 2013;105(4):283-9.  https://doi.org/10.1111/vox.12056  PMID: 23763589 
  30. Fearon MA, O’Brien SF, Delage G, Scalia V, Bernier F, Bigham M, et al. Hepatitis E in Canadian blood donors. Transfusion. 2017;57(6):1420-5.  https://doi.org/10.1111/trf.14089  PMID: 28394029 
  31. Kubacki J, Fraefel C, Jermini M, Giannini P, Martinetti G, Ripellino P, et al. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Swiss Hepatitis E Virus Isolates from Human Stool and Raw Pork Sausage. Genome Announc. 2017;5(35):e00888-17.  https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00888-17  PMID: 28860248 
  32. Holm DK, Moessner BK, Engle RE, Zaaijer HL, Georgsen J, Purcell RH, et al. Declining prevalence of hepatitis E antibodies among Danish blood donors. Transfusion. 2015;55(7):1662-7.  https://doi.org/10.1111/trf.13028  PMID: 25819381 
  33. Ijaz S, Vyse AJ, Morgan D, Pebody RG, Tedder RS, Brown D. Indigenous hepatitis E virus infection in England: more common than it seems. J Clin Virol. 2009;44(4):272-6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2009.01.005  PMID: 19217345 
  34. Hogema BM, Molier M, Slot E, Zaaijer HL. Past and present of hepatitis E in the Netherlands. Transfusion. 2014;54(12):3092-6.  https://doi.org/10.1111/trf.12733  PMID: 24889277 
  35. Wenzel JJ, Sichler M, Schemmerer M, Behrens G, Leitzmann MF, Jilg W. Decline in hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in southeastern Germany, 1996-2011. Hepatology. 2014;60(4):1180-6.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.27244  PMID: 24912687 
  36. Faber MS, Wenzel JJ, Jilg W, Thamm M, Höhle M, Stark K. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence among adults, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1654-7.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111756  PMID: 23018055 
  37. Baylis SA, Koc O, Nick S, Blümel J. Widespread distribution of hepatitis E virus in plasma fractionation pools. Vox Sang. 2012;102(2):182-3.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1423-0410.2011.01527.x  PMID: 21806631 
  38. Huzly D, Umhau M, Bettinger D, Cathomen T, Emmerich F, Hasselblatt P, et al. Transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E in Germany, 2013. Euro Surveill. 2014;19(21):20812.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES2014.19.21.20812  PMID: 24906377 
  39. Djoudi RD, Gallian PG, Roque-Afonso AMRA, Bierling PB, Assal AA, Hauser LH, et al. Occurrence of Transfusion-Transmitted Hepatitis E in France. Vox Sang 2015;109 (Suppl. 1)(4C-S22-02):1-379.
  40. Domanović D, Tedder R, Blümel J, Zaaijer H, Gallian P, Niederhauser C, et al. Hepatitis E and blood donation safety in selected European countries: a shift to screening? Euro Surveill. 2017;22(16):30514.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.16.30514  PMID: 28449730 
/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.35.1700616
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Comment has been disabled for this content
Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error