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On 18 January 2016, the French National Reference Centre for reported to Santé publique France an excess of serotype Dublin ( Dublin) infections. We investigated to identify the source of infection and implement control measures. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) were performed to identify microbiological clusters and links among cases, animal and food sources. Clusters were defined as isolates with less than 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms determined by WGS and/or with identical MLVA pattern. We compared different clusters of cases with other cases (case–case study) and controls recruited from a web-based cohort (case–control study) in terms of food consumption. We interviewed 63/83 (76%) cases; 2,914 controls completed a questionnaire. Both studies’ findings indicated that successive Dublin outbreaks from different sources had occurred between November 2015 and March 2016. In the case–control study, cases of distinct WGS clusters were more likely to have consumed Morbier (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.8–42) or Vacherin Mont d’Or (aOR: 27; 95% CI: 6.8–105), two bovine raw-milk cheeses. Based on these results, the Ministry of Agriculture launched a reinforced control plan for processing plants of raw-milk cheeses in the production region, to prevent future outbreaks.


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