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People living with HIV (PLHIV) and people in prison are population groups with a potentially high risk and/or prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.


We conducted a systematic review in order to find prevalence and incidence estimates in these populations in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA).


Original research articles published between January 2005 and February 2017 were retrieved from PubMed and Embase in February 2017.


Fifty-two articles were included, providing 97 estimates of HBV/HCV infection prevalence or incidence. Estimates of HBV infection prevalence ranged between 2.9% and43.4% in PLHIV and 0.0% and 25.2% in people in prison. Estimates of HCV infection prevalence ranged from 2.9% to 43.4% in PLHIV and 0.0% to 25.2% in people in prison. Incidence estimates ranged between 0.0 and 2.5 cases per 100 person-years for HBV infection in PLHIV. No such data was available for people in prison. HCV infection incidence ranged between 0.3 and 0.9 cases per 100 person-years in PLHIV and between 1 and 1.2 cases per 100 person-years in people in prison. Prevalence estimates were generally higher than in the general population, especially for HCV infection and among groups with multiple risk factors.


PLHIV, people in prison and groups with multiple risk factors, have a high prevalence of HBV and HCV and may be at ongoing risk of infection. These groups should be among the populations prioritised and targeted for active case finding and prevention programmes in the EU/EEA.


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