Editorial Open Access
Like 0
Preview this article:

There is no abstract available.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Francis ME, King ML, Kelvin AA. Back to the Future for Influenza Preimmunity-Looking Back at Influenza Virus History to Infer the Outcome of Future Infections. Viruses. 2019;11(2):E122.  https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020122  PMID: 30704019 
  2. Gostic KM, Ambrose M, Worobey M, Lloyd-Smith JO. Potent protection against H5N1 and H7N9 influenza via childhood hemagglutinin imprinting. Science. 2016;354(6313):722-6.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aag1322  PMID: 27846599 
  3. Skowronski DM, Sabaiduc S, Leir S, Rose C, Zou M, Murti M, et al. Paradoxical clade- and age-specific vaccine effectiveness during the 2018/19 influenza A(H3N2) epidemic in Canada: potential imprint-regulated effect of vaccine (I-REV). Euro Surveill. 2019;24(46).  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.46.1900585 
  4. Kissling E, Pozo F, Buda S, Vilcu AM, Gherasim A, Brytting M, et al. Low 2018/19 vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3N2) among 15-64-year-olds in Europe: exploration by birth cohort. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(48):1900604.
  5. Francis TJ. On the Doctrine of Original Antigenic Sin. Proc Am Philos Soc. 1960;104:572-8.
  6. Monto AS, Malosh RE, Petrie JG, Martin ET. The doctrine of original antigenic sin: separating good from evil. J Infect Dis. 2017;215(12):1782-8.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix173  PMID: 28398521 
  7. Hoskins TW, Davies JR, Smith AJ, Miller CL, Allchin A. Assessment of inactivated influenza-A vaccine after three outbreaks of influenza A at Christ’s Hospital. Lancet. 1979;1(8106):33-5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(79)90468-9  PMID: 83475 
  8. Worobey M, Han GZ, Rambaut A. Genesis and pathogenesis of the 1918 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014;111(22):8107-12.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1324197111  PMID: 24778238 
  9. Hancock K, Veguilla V, Lu X, Zhong W, Butler EN, Sun H, et al. Cross-reactive antibody responses to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(20):1945-52.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0906453  PMID: 19745214 
  10. Andrews SF, Huang Y, Kaur K, Popova LI, Ho IY, Pauli NT, et al. Immune history profoundly affects broadly protective B cell responses to influenza. Sci Transl Med. 2015;7(316):316ra192.  https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aad0522  PMID: 26631631 
  11. Krammer F. The human antibody response to influenza A virus infection and vaccination. Nat Rev Immunol. 2019;19(6):383-97.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0143-6  PMID: 30837674 
  12. Yu X, Tsibane T, McGraw PA, House FS, Keefer CJ, Hicar MD, et al. Neutralizing antibodies derived from the B cells of 1918 influenza pandemic survivors. Nature. 2008;455(7212):532-6.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07231  PMID: 18716625 
  13. Karageorgopoulos DE, Vouloumanou EK, Korbila IP, Kapaskelis A, Falagas ME. Age distribution of cases of 2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza in comparison with seasonal influenza. PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e21690.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021690  PMID: 21747947 
  14. Miller MS, Tsibane T, Krammer F, Hai R, Rahmat S, Basler CF, et al. 1976 and 2009 H1N1 influenza virus vaccines boost anti-hemagglutinin stalk antibodies in humans. J Infect Dis. 2013;207(1):98-105.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jis652  PMID: 23087428 
  15. Davenport FM, Hennessy AV. Predetermination by infection and by vaccination of antibody response to influenza virus vaccines. J Exp Med. 1957;106(6):835-50.  https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.106.6.835  PMID: 13481247 
  16. Skowronski DM, Chambers C, De Serres G, Sabaiduc S, Winter AL, Dickinson JA, et al. Serial vaccination and the antigenic distance hypothesis: effects on influenza vaccine effectiveness during A(H3N2) epidemics in canada, 2010-2011 to 2014-2015. J Infect Dis. 2017;215(7):1059-99.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix074  PMID: 28180277 
  17. Zost SJ, Parkhouse K, Gumina ME, Kim K, Diaz Perez S, Wilson PC, et al. Contemporary H3N2 influenza viruses have a glycosylation site that alters binding of antibodies elicited by egg-adapted vaccine strains. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2017;114(47):12578-83.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1712377114  PMID: 29109276 
  18. Francis ME, McNeil M, Dawe NJ, Foley MK, King ML, Ross TM, et al. Historical H1N1 influenza virus imprinting increases vaccine protection by influencing the activity and sustained production of antibodies elicited at vaccination in ferrets. Vaccines (Basel). 2019;7(4):133.  https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7040133  PMID: 31569351 
  19. Miller MS, Gardner TJ, Krammer F, Aguado LC, Tortorella D, Basler CF, et al. Neutralizing antibodies against previously encountered influenza virus strains increase over time: a longitudinal analysis. Sci Transl Med. 2013;5(198):198ra107.  https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3006637  PMID: 23946196 
  20. Henry C, Zheng NY, Huang M, Cabanov A, Rojas KT, Kaur K, et al. influenza virus vaccination elicits poorly adapted B cell responses in elderly individuals. Cell Host Microbe. 2019;25(3):357-366.e6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2019.01.002  PMID: 30795982 
  21. Lee J, Paparoditis P, Horton AP, Fruhwirth A, McDaniel JR, Jung J, et al. Persistent antibody clonotypes dominate the serum response to influenza over multiple years and repeated vaccinations. Cell Host Microbe. 2019;25(3):367-76e5.  PMID: 30795982 
  22. Bouvier NM, Lowen AC. Animal models for influenza virus pathogenesis and transmission. Viruses. 2010;2(8):1530-63.  https://doi.org/10.3390/v20801530  PMID: 21442033 
  23. Kosikova M, Li L, Radvak P, Ye Z, Wan XF, Xie H. Imprinting of repeated influenza A/H3 exposures on antibody quantity and antibody quality: implications for seasonal vaccine strain selection and vaccine performance. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;67(10):1523-32.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy327  PMID: 29672713 
  24. Allen JD, Jang H, DiNapoli J, Kleanthous H, Ross TM. Elicitation of protective antibodies against 20 years of future H3N2 cocirculating influenza virus variants in ferrets preimmune to historical H3N2 influenza viruses. J Virol. 2019;93(3):e00946-18.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00946-18  PMID: 30429350 
  25. Jang H, Ross TM. Preexisting influenza specific immunity and vaccine effectiveness. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2019;18(10):1043-51.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2019.1675519  PMID: 31575308 
  26. Andrews SF, Kaur K, Pauli NT, Huang M, Huang Y, Wilson PC. High preexisting serological antibody levels correlate with diversification of the influenza vaccine response. J Virol. 2015;89(6):3308-17.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02871-14  PMID: 25589639 
  27. Lessler J, Riley S, Read JM, Wang S, Zhu H, Smith GJ, et al. Evidence for antigenic seniority in influenza A (H3N2) antibody responses in southern China. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8(7):e1002802.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002802  PMID: 22829765 
  28. Flannery B, Kondor RJG, Chung JR, Gaglani M, Reis M, Zimmerman RK, et al. Spread of antigenically drifted influenza A(H3N2) viruses and vaccine effectiveness in the United States during the 2018-2019 season. J Infect Dis. 2019;jiz543.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz543  PMID: 31665373 
  29. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). ACIP live meeting archive – June 2019. Agency updates; influenza vaccines. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2019. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/weeklyarchives2018-2019/Week18.htm

Data & Media loading...

Submit comment
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error