Rapid communication Open Access
Like 0


Eighteen cases of chikungunya virus infection in travellers returning from Myanmar were reported to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network, its subnetwork EuroTravNet and TropNet in 2019, reflecting an ongoing local outbreak. This report reinforces the importance of travellers as sentinels of emerging arboviral outbreaks and highlights the importance of vigilance for imported cases, due to the potential for dissemination of the virus into areas with competent local vectors and conducive environmental conditions.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Myanmar Times. Chikungunya reappears after 10 years. [Accessed 20 Oct 2019]. Available from: https://www.mmtimes.com/news/chikungunya-reappears-after-10-years.html
  2. Tun MM, Thant KZ, Inoue S, Nabeshima T, Aoki K, Kyaw AK, et al. Detection of east/central/south African genotype of chikungunya virus in Myanmar, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1378-81.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131431  PMID: 25062511 
  3. Wimalasiri-Yapa BMCR, Stassen L, Huang X, Hafner LM, Hu W, Devine GJ, et al. Chikungunya virus in Asia - Pacific: a systematic review. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2019;8(1):70-9.  https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2018.1559708  PMID: 30866761 
  4. World Health Organization South-East Asia Regional Office (WHO SEARO). Proposed case definition of Chikungunya Fever (WHO, SEARO). New Delhi: WHO SEARO. [Accessed 19 Dec 2019]. Available from: http://origin.searo.who.int/entity/emerging_diseases/topics/Def_Chikungunya_Fever.pdf
  5. Silva JVJ Jr, Ludwig-Begall LF, Oliveira-Filho EF, Oliveira RAS, Durães-Carvalho R, Lopes TRR, et al. A scoping review of Chikungunya virus infection: epidemiology, clinical characteristics, viral co-circulation complications, and control. Acta Trop. 2018;188:213-24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.09.003  PMID: 30195666 
  6. Economopoulou A, Dominguez M, Helynck B, Sissoko D, Wichmann O, Quenel P, et al. Atypical Chikungunya virus infections: clinical manifestations, mortality and risk factors for severe disease during the 2005-2006 outbreak on Réunion. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137(4):534-41.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268808001167  PMID: 18694529 
  7. Schwartz O, Albert ML. Biology and pathogenesis of chikungunya virus. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8(7):491-500.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2368  PMID: 20551973 
  8. Consuegra-Rodríguez MP, Hidalgo-Zambrano DM, Vásquez-Serna H, Jimenez-Canizales CE, Parra-Valencia E, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Post-chikungunya chronic inflammatory rheumatism: Follow-up of cases after 1 year of infection in Tolima, Colombia. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2018;21:62-8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2017.11.013  PMID: 29203304 
  9. van Aalst M, Nelen CM, Goorhuis A, Stijnis C, Grobusch MP. Long-term sequelae of chikungunya virus disease: A systematic review. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2017;15:8-22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2017.01.004  PMID: 28163198 
  10. Pulmanausahakul R, Roytrakul S, Auewarakul P, Smith DR. Chikungunya in Southeast Asia: understanding the emergence and finding solutions. Int J Infect Dis. 2011;15(10):e671-6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2011.06.002  PMID: 21775183 
  11. Thaung U, Ming CK, Swe T, Thein S. Epidemiological features of dengue and chikungunya infections in Burma. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1975;6(2):276-83. PMID: 126493 
  12. National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) Japan; Infectious Diseases Control Division (IDCD), Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), Japan. IDWR (Infectious Diseases Weekly Report), week 42, as of 6 Oct 2019: NIID; 2019. [Accessed 29 Oct 2019]. Available from: https://www0.nih.go.jp/niid/idsc/idwr/IDWR2019/idwr2019-42.pdf
  13. Sistema di Sorveglianza delle Arbovirosi Rapporto n.6, 2019. [Accessed 19 Dec 2019]. Available from: https://www.epicentro.iss.it/arbovirosi/pdf/Chik_2019.pdf
  14. Latt NN, Myat Cho S, Htun NM, Myint MN, Aoki F, Reyer JA, et al. Yu Mon Saw. Healthcare in Myanmar. Nagoya J Med Sci. 2016;78(2):123-34. PMID: 27303099 
  15. Ngwe Tun MM, Inoue S, Thant KZ, Talemaitoga N, Aryati A, Dimaano EM, et al. Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region. Epidemiol Infect. 2016;144(11):2268-75.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S095026881600056X  PMID: 27018566 
  16. Pulmanausahakul R, Roytrakul S, Auewarakul P, Smith DR. Chikungunya in Southeast Asia: understanding the emergence and finding solutions. Int J Infect Dis. 2011;15(10):e671-6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2011.06.002  PMID: 21775183 
  17. World Health Organization (WHO). Prevent Dengue & Chikungunya, WHO Myanmar newsletter special; 9 September 2019. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/searo/myanmar/prevent-dengue-and-chikungunya.pdf?sfvrsn=9b1b3069_0
  18. Department of Disease Control. Weekly Disease Forecast No.234_Chikungunya (3-9 November 2019). Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health. [Accessed 08 Jan 2020]. Available from: https://ddc.moph.go.th/uploads/files_en/28420191219085018.pdf
  19. Javelle E, Florescu S-A, Asgeirsson H, Jmor S, Eperon G, Leshem E, et al. Increased risk of chikungunya infection in travellers to Thailand during ongoing outbreak in tourist areas: cases imported to Europe and the Middle East, early 2019. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(10):1900146.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.10.1900146  PMID: 30862335 
  20. World Tourism Organization. Myanmar: Country-specific: Basic indicators (Compendium) 2013-2017 (11.2018). [Accessed 24 Oct 2019]. Available from: https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/abs/10.5555/unwtotfb0104010020142018201909
  21. Medlock JM, Avenell D, Barrass I, Leach S. Analysis of the potential for survival and seasonal activity of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the United Kingdom. J Vector Ecol. 2006;31(2):292-304.  https://doi.org/10.3376/1081-1710(2006)31[292:AOTPFS]2.0.CO;2  PMID: 17249347 
  22. Appassakij H, Khuntikij P, Silpapojakul K, Promwong C, Rujirojindakul P, Suddeaugrai O, et al. Risk of chikungunya virus transmission associated with European travelers returning from southern Thailand (2008-2015). Transfusion. 2019;59(8):2612-21.  https://doi.org/10.1111/trf.15401  PMID: 31228360 
  23. Díaz-Menéndez M, Crespillo-Andújar C. Literature review of mosquito-borne viral infections in non-tropical European Union territories: A cause of concern? Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2019;37(9):619-20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eimc.2018.12.002  PMID: 30594320 
  24. Pastorino B, Bessaud M, Grandadam M, Murri S, Tolou HJ, Peyrefitte CN. Development of a TaqMan RT-PCR assay without RNA extraction step for the detection and quantification of African Chikungunya viruses. J Virol Methods. 2005;124(1-2):65-71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2004.11.002  PMID: 15664052 

Data & Media loading...

Submit comment
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error