1887
Research Open Access
Like 0

Abstract

Background

is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, with large epidemics previously described to occur every 4 to 7 years.

Aim

To better understand the diagnostic methods used to detect . ; to better understand testing and surveillance in use; to identify epidemics; to determine detection number per age group, age demographics for positive detections, concurrence of epidemics and annual peaks across geographical areas; and to determine the effect of geographical location on the timing of epidemics.

Methods

A questionnaire was sent in May 2016 to experts with national or regional responsibility within the ESCMID Study Group for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia Infections in 17 countries across Europe and Israel, retrospectively requesting details on positive samples from January 2011 to April 2016. The Moving Epidemic Method was used to determine epidemic periods and effect of country latitude across the countries for the five periods under investigation.

Results

Representatives from 12 countries provided data on infections, accounting for 95,666 positive samples. Two laboratories initiated routine macrolide resistance testing since 2013. Between 2011 and 2016, three epidemics were identified: 2011/12, 2014/15 and 2015/16. The distribution of patient ages for positive samples showed three patterns. During epidemic years, an association between country latitude and calendar week when epidemic periods began was noted.

Conclusions

An association between epidemics and latitude was observed. Differences were noted in the age distribution of positive cases and detection methods used and practice. A lack of macrolide resistance monitoring was noted.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.2.1900112
2020-01-16
2020-07-07
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.2.1900112
Loading
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/eurosurveillance/25/2/eurosurv-25-2-5.html?itemId=/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.2.1900112&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Sánchez-Vargas FM, Gómez-Duarte OG. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-an emerging extra-pulmonary pathogen. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14(2):105-17.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2007.01834.x  PMID: 17949442 
  2. Xin D, Mi Z, Han X, Qin L, Li J, Wei T, et al. Molecular mechanisms of macrolide resistance in clinical isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae from China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53(5):2158-9.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01563-08  PMID: 19273685 
  3. Zhao F, Lv M, Tao X, Huang H, Zhang B, Zhang Z, et al. Antibiotic sensitivity of 40 Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates and molecular analysis of macrolide-resistant isolates from Beijing, China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56(2):1108-9.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.05627-11  PMID: 22106216 
  4. Gullsby K, Olsen B, Bondeson K. Molecular Typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Strains in Sweden from 1996 to 2017 and the Emergence of a New P1 Cytadhesin Gene, Variant 2e. J Clin Microbiol. 2019;57(6):e00049-19.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00049-19  PMID: 30918047 
  5. Lenglet A, Herrador Z, Magiorakos AP, Leitmeyer K, Coulombier D, European Working Group on Mycoplasm CEuropean Working Group on Mycoplasma pneumoniae surveillance. Surveillance status and recent data for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the European Union and European Economic Area, January 2012. Euro Surveill. 2012;17(5):20075.  https://doi.org/10.2807/ese.17.05.20075-en  PMID: 22321134 
  6. Rasmussen JN, Voldstedlund M, Andersen RL, Ellermann-Eriksen S, Jensen TG, Johansen HK, et al. Increased incidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections detected by laboratory-based surveillance in Denmark in 2010. Euro Surveill. 2010;15(45):19708. PMID: 21087593 
  7. Rastawicki W, Kaluzewski S, Jagielski M, Gierczyski R. Epidemiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in Poland : 28 years of surveillance in Warsaw 1970-1997. Euro Surveill. 1998;3(10):99-100.  https://doi.org/10.2807/esm.03.10.00095-en  PMID: 12631756 
  8. Zhang XS, Zhao H, Vynnycky E, Chalker V. Positively interacting strains that co-circulate within a network structured population induce cycling epidemics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):541.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36325-z  PMID: 30679460 
  9. Statens Serum Institut (SSI). Epidemi med Mycoplasma pneumoniae. [Epidemic with Mycoplasma pneumoniae]. Copenhagen; SSI: October 2016. Danish. Available from: https://www.ssi.dk/aktuelt/nyhedsbreve/epi-nyt/2016/uge-41---2016
  10. Kawai Y, Miyashita N, Kubo M, Akaike H, Kato A, Nishizawa Y, et al. Nationwide surveillance of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in pediatric patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57(8):4046-9.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00663-13  PMID: 23716043 
  11. Public Health England (PHE). Annual summary of Mycoplasma pneumoniae laboratory surveillance data, 2016, England and Wales. London: PHE; January 2017. Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/817798/MycoplasmaAnnualSummary2016.pdf
  12. Vega T, Lozano JE, Meerhoff T, Snacken R, Mott J, Ortiz de Lejarazu R, et al. Influenza surveillance in Europe: establishing epidemic thresholds by the moving epidemic method. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013;7(4):546-58.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00422.x  PMID: 22897919 
  13. Peuchant O, Ménard A, Renaudin H, Morozumi M, Ubukata K, Bébéar CM, et al. Increased macrolide resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in France directly detected in clinical specimens by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;64(1):52-8.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkp160  PMID: 19429926 
  14. Dumke R, Benitez AJ, Chalker V, Gullsby K, Henrich B, Hidalgo-Grass C, et al. Multi-center evaluation of one commercial and 12 in-house real-time PCR assays for detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017;88(2):111-4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2017.03.004  PMID: 28318608 
  15. Nir-Paz R, Michael-Gayego A, Ron M, Block C. Evaluation of eight commercial tests for Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies in the absence of acute infection. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12(7):685-8.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2006.01469.x  PMID: 16774570 
  16. He XY, Wang XB, Zhang R, Yuan ZJ, Tan JJ, Peng B, et al. Investigation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in pediatric population from 12,025 cases with respiratory infection. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;75(1):22-7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2012.08.027  PMID: 23040512 
  17. Waites KB, Xiao L, Liu Y, Balish MF, Atkinson TP. Mycoplasma pneumoniae from the Respiratory Tract and Beyond. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2017;30(3):747-809.  https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00114-16  PMID: 28539503 
  18. Brown RJ, Macfarlane-Smith L, Phillips S, Chalker VJ. Detection of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in England, September 2014 to September 2015. Euro Surveill. 2015;20(48):30078.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2015.20.48.30078  PMID: 26675545 
  19. Dumke R, Lück C, Jacobs E. Low rate of macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains in Germany between 2009 and 2012. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57(7):3460.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00706-13  PMID: 23650170 
  20. Pereyre S, Touati A, Petitjean-Lecherbonnier J, Charron A, Vabret A, Bébéar C. The increased incidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in France in 2011 was polyclonal, mainly involving M. pneumoniae type 1 strains. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013;19(4):E212-7.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-0691.12107  PMID: 23279613 
  21. Averbuch D, Hidalgo-Grass C, Moses AE, Engelhard D, Nir-Paz R. Macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Israel, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1079-82.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid/1706.101558  PMID: 21749775 
  22. Bao F, Qu JX, Liu ZJ, Qin XG, Cao B. [The clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2013;36(10):756-61. PMID: 24433804 
  23. Zhou Z, Li X, Chen X, Luo F, Pan C, Zheng X, et al. Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in adults in Zhejiang, China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;59(2):1048-51.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.04308-14  PMID: 25451048 
  24. Chalker VJ, Stocki T, Mentasti M, Fleming D, Sadler C, Ellis J, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in primary care investigated by real-time PCR in England and Wales. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;30(7):915-21.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-011-1176-3  PMID: 21311941 
  25. Kenri T, Okazaki N, Yamazaki T, Narita M, Izumikawa K, Matsuoka M, et al. Genotyping analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical strains in Japan between 1995 and 2005: type shift phenomenon of M. pneumoniae clinical strains. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57(Pt 4):469-75.  https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.47634-0  PMID: 18349367 
  26. Kogoj R, Praprotnik M, Mrvič T, Korva M, Keše D. Genetic diversity and macrolide resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates from two consecutive epidemics in Slovenia. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018;37(1):99-107.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-017-3106-5  PMID: 28948376 
  27. Dumke R, Von Baum H, Lück PC, Jacobs E. Subtypes and variants of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: local and temporal changes in Germany 2003-2006 and absence of a correlation between the genotype in the respiratory tract and the occurrence of genotype-specific antibodies in the sera of infected patients. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138(12):1829-37.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268810000622  PMID: 20334729 
  28. Martínez MA, Ruiz M, Zunino E, Luchsinger V, Aguirre R, Avendaño LF. Identification of P1 types and variants of Mycoplasma pneumoniae during an epidemic in Chile. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59(Pt 8):925-9.  https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.018333-0  PMID: 20448063 
  29. Zhao F, Liu L, Tao X, He L, Meng F, Zhang J. Culture-Independent Detection and Genotyping of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Clinical Specimens from Beijing, China. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0141702.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141702  PMID: 26509651 
  30. Brown RJ, Nguipdop-Djomo P, Zhao H, Stanford E, Spiller OB, Chalker VJ. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Epidemiology in England and Wales: A National Perspective. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:157.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00157  PMID: 26909073 
/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.2.1900112
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary data

Comment has been disabled for this content
Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error