Perspective Open Access
Like 0


Sentinel surveillance of acute hospitalisations in response to infectious disease emergencies such as the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic is well described, but recognition of its potential to supplement routine public health surveillance and provide scalability for emergency responses has been limited. We summarise the achievements of two national paediatric hospital surveillance networks relevant to vaccine programmes and emerging infectious diseases in Canada (Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program Active; IMPACT from 1991) and Australia (Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance; PAEDS from 2007) and discuss opportunities and challenges in applying their model to other contexts. Both networks were established to enhance capacity to measure vaccine preventable disease burden, vaccine programme impact, and safety, with their scope occasionally being increased with emerging infectious diseases’ surveillance. Their active surveillance has increased data accuracy and utility for syndromic conditions (e.g. encephalitis), pathogen-specific diseases (e.g. pertussis, rotavirus, influenza), and adverse events following immunisation (e.g. febrile seizure), enabled correlation of biological specimens with clinical context and supported responses to emerging infections (e.g. pandemic influenza, parechovirus, COVID-19). The demonstrated long-term value of continuous, rather than incident-related, operation of these networks in strengthening routine surveillance, bridging research gaps, and providing scalable public health response, supports their applicability to other countries.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Thomson G, Nicoll A. Responding to new severe diseases--the case for routine hospital surveillance and clinical networks in Europe. Euro Surveill. 2010;15(49):15.  https://doi.org/10.2807/ese.15.49.19745-en  PMID: 21163183 
  2. Blyth CC, Macartney KK, McRae J, Clark JE, Marshall HS, Buttery J, et al. , Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS), Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) Collaboration. Influenza Epidemiology, Vaccine Coverage and Vaccine Effectiveness in Children Admitted to Sentinel Australian Hospitals in 2017: Results from the PAEDS-FluCAN Collaboration. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;68(6):940-8.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy597  PMID: 30137244 
  3. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Healthcare-associated Infections Surveillance Network (HAI-Net). Stockholm: ECDC. [Accessed 24 Jun 2020]. Available from: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/about-us/partnerships-and-networks/disease-and-laboratory-networks/hai-net
  4. Kissling E, Rondy M, I-MOVE/I-MOVE+ study team. Early 2016/17 vaccine effectiveness estimates against influenza A(H3N2): I-MOVE multicentre case control studies at primary care and hospital levels in Europe. Euro Surveill. 2017;22(7):30464.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.7.30464  PMID: 28230524 
  5. Hasan AZ, Saha S, Saha SK, Sahakyan G, Grigoryan S, Mwenda JM, et al. . Using pneumococcal and rotavirus surveillance in vaccine decision-making: A series of case studies in Bangladesh, Armenia and the Gambia. Vaccine. 2018;36(32);4939-43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.06.001  PMID: 30037484 
  6. Tate JE, Mwenda JM, Armah G, Jani B, Omore R, Ademe A, et al. , African Intussusception Surveillance Network. Evaluation of Intussusception after Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccination in Africa. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(16):1521-8.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1713909  PMID: 29669224 
  7. Bravo-Alcántara P, Pérez-Vilar S, Molina-León HF, Sturkenboom M, Black S, Zuber PLF, et al. , L.A.N.V.A.P. (Latin American Network for VAccine Pharmacovigilance). Building capacity for active surveillance of vaccine adverse events in the Americas: A hospital-based multi-country network. Vaccine. 2018;36(3):363-70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.04.069  PMID: 28803714 
  8. Merdrignac L, Tozzi AE, Belchior E, Jané M, Krizova P, Garcia Cenoz M, et al. Pilot season of PERTINENT, a novel sentinel system to measure the burden of pertussis in hospitalised infants in EU/EEA. In: Proceedings of ESPID 2017 conference; 2017 May 23-27; Madrid, Spain. ESP17-1188. Available from: http://espid2017.kenes.com/Documents/ESPID17%20abstracts.pdf
  9. Scheifele DW, Halperin SA, CPS/Health Canada, Immunization Monitoring Program, Active (IMPACT). Immunization Monitoring Program, Active: a model of active surveillance of vaccine safety. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2003;14(3):213-9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1045-1870(03)00036-0  PMID: 12913834 
  10. Bettinger JA, Scheifele DW, Kellner JD, Halperin SA, Vaudry W, Law B, et al. , Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program, Active (IMPACT). The effect of routine vaccination on invasive pneumococcal infections in Canadian children, Immunization Monitoring Program, Active 2000-2007. Vaccine. 2010;28(9):2130-6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.12.026  PMID: 20044050 
  11. Sadarangani M, Scheifele DW, Halperin SA, Vaudry W, Le Saux N, Tsang R, et al. , investigators of the Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program, ACTive (IMPACT). The impact of the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in Canada between 2002 and 2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(9):1208-15.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu597  PMID: 25069868 
  12. Tan B, Bettinger J, McConnell A, Scheifele D, Halperin S, Vaudry W, et al. , Members of the Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program, Active (IMPACT). The effect of funded varicella immunization programs on varicella-related hospitalizations in IMPACT centers, Canada, 2000-2008. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31(9):956-63.  https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e318260cc4d  PMID: 22647896 
  13. Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN. Review of Australia’s polio surveillance. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2013;37(2):E149-55. PMID: 24168089 
  14. Government of Canada. Fluwatch. 2018; updated August 31 2018; [Accessed 7 Sep 2018]. Available from. https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/flu-influenza/influenza-surveillance/about-fluwatch.html
  15. Ahmadipour N, Watkins K, Fréchette M, Coulby C, Anyoti H, Johnson K. Vaccine safety surveillance in Canada: Reports to CAEFISS, 2013-2016. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2018;44(9):206-14.  https://doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v44i09a04  PMID: 31015811 
  16. Gibney KB, Cheng AC, Hall R, Leder K. Sociodemographic and geographical inequalities in notifiable infectious diseases in Australia: a retrospective analysis of 21 years of national disease surveillance data. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17(1):86-97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30309-7  PMID: 27789179 
  17. Britton PN, Dale RC, Nissen MD, Crawford N, Elliott E, Macartney K, et al. , PAEDS-ACE Investigators. Parechovirus Encephalitis and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes. Pediatrics. 2016;137(2):e20152848.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-2848  PMID: 26791970 
  18. Sullivan SGP, Raupach KJ, Franklin LJ, Bareja C, de Kluyver R and the National Influenza Surveillance Committee, for the Communicable Diseases Network Australia. A summary of influenza surveillance systems in Australia, 2015. Camberra: Department of Health. Available from: https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/cda-surveil-ozflu-flucurr.htm/$File/Influenza-Surveillance-Systems-Paper.pdf
  19. Beard FH, Hendry AJ, Macartney K. Early success with room for improvement: influenza vaccination of young Australian children. Med J Aust. 2019;210(11):484-486.e1.  https://doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50141  PMID: 31063595 
  20. Bettinger JA, Sauvé LJ, Scheifele DW, Moore D, Vaudry W, Tran D, et al. Pandemic influenza in Canadian children: a summary of hospitalized pediatric cases. Vaccine. 2010;28(18):3180-4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.02.044  PMID: 20189488 
  21. Khandaker G, Zurynski Y, Ridley G, Buttery J, Marshall H, Richmond PC, et al. Clinical epidemiology and predictors of outcome in children hospitalised with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009: a prospective national study. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2014;8(6):636-45.  https://doi.org/10.1111/irv.12286  PMID: 25263176 
  22. Whittaker E, Bamford A, Kenny J, Kaforou M, Jones CE, Shah P, et al. , PIMS-TS Study Group and EUCLIDS and PERFORM Consortia. Clinical Characteristics of 58 Children With a Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally Associated With SARS-CoV-2. JAMA. 2020;e2010369.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.10369  PMID: 32511692 
  23. Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS). COVID-19, Kawasaki Disease (KD) and PIMS-TS in children. PAEDS. 15 May 2020. Available from: http://www.paeds.org.au/covid-19-kawasaki-disease-kd-and-pims-ts-children
  24. Invasive bacterial vaccine preventable disease sentinel hospital surveillance network: summary of a strategic review and next steps, 2008–2014. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2014;89(49):545-50. PMID: 25485342 
  25. Mursalova N, Shugayev N, Suleymanova J, Daniels DS, Wasley A, Cohen AL, et al. Rotavirus gastroenteritis surveillance in Azerbaijan, 2011-2016. Vaccine. 2018;36(51):7790-3.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.02.045  PMID: 29784471 
  26. Hviid A, Hansen JV, Frisch M, Melbye M. Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccination and Autism: A Nationwide Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(8):513-20.  https://doi.org/10.7326/M18-2101  PMID: 30831578 
  27. Baum U, Kulathinal S, Auranen K, Nohynek H. Effectiveness of two influenza vaccines in nationwide cohorts of Finnish two-year-old children in the seasons 2015/16-2017/18. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;ciaa050.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa050  PMID: 31955204 
  28. Glode Helmuth I, Broccia MD, Glenthøj JP, Harder K, Jensen L, von Linstow ML, et al. Children Hospitalized with Varicella in Denmark: Sensitivity of the National Patient Register. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017;36(1):31-5.  https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000001347  PMID: 27749656 
  29. Gostin LO, Tomori O, Wibulpolprasert S, Jha AK, Frenk J, Moon S, et al. Toward a Common Secure Future: Four Global Commissions in the Wake of Ebola. PLoS Med. 2016;13(5):e1002042.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002042  PMID: 27195954 
  30. Deeks SL, Clark M, Scheifele DW, Law BJ, Dawar M, Ahmadipour N, et al. Serious adverse events associated with bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine in Canada. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24(6):538-41.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.inf.0000164769.22033.2c  PMID: 15933565 
  31. Scheifele D, Law B, Jadavji T. Disseminated bacille Calmette-Guérin infection: three recent Canadian cases. IMPACT. Immunization Monitoring Program, Active. Can Commun Dis Rep. 1998;24(9):69-72, discussion 73-5. PMID: 9611413 
  32. Le Saux N, Barrowman NJ, Moore DL, Whiting S, Scheifele D, Halperin S, Canadian Paediatric Society/ Health Canada Immunization Monitoring Program-Active (IMPACT). Decrease in hospital admissions for febrile seizures and reports of hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes presenting to hospital emergency departments since switching to acellular pertussis vaccine in Canada: a report from IMPACT. Pediatrics. 2003;112(5):e348.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.112.5.e348  PMID: 14595075 
  33. Jadavji T, Scheifele D, Halperin S, Canadian Paediatric Society/Health Cananda Immunization Monitoring Program. Thrombocytopenia after immunization of Canadian children, 1992 to 2001. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22(2):119-22.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.inf.0000048961.08486.d1  PMID: 12586974 
  34. Sauvé LJ, Bettinger J, Scheifele D, Halperin S, Vaudry W, Law B, Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program, and Active (IMPACT). Postvaccination thrombocytopenia in Canada. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29(6):559-61. PMID: 20160658 
  35. Scheifele DW. Recent trends in pediatric Haemophilus influenzae type B infections in Canada. Immunization Monitoring Program, Active (IMPACT) of the Canadian Paediatric Society and the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. CMAJ. 1996;154(7):1041-7. PMID: 8625025 
  36. McConnell A, Tan B, Scheifele D, Halperin S, Vaudry W, Law B, et al. , of The Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program, ACTive (IMPACT). Invasive infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae serotypes in twelve Canadian IMPACT centers, 1996-2001. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26(11):1025-31.  https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e31812f4f5b  PMID: 17984810 
  37. Tan B. The epidemiology of invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type A: A report from the Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program ACTive (IMPACT). Canadian Immunization Conference; Ottawa, Ontario2016.
  38. McNair J, Smith A, Bettinger JA, Vaudry W, Tan B, Desai S, et al. , Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program Active (IMPACT) Investigators. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Type B infections in children with cancer in the era of infant Hib immunization programs (1991-2014): A Report From the Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program Active. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018;37(7):726-8.  https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000001850  PMID: 29200182 
  39. Bettinger J, Scheifele D, Kellner J, Le Saux N, Embree J, Vanderkooi O, et al. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Canadian children, 2000-2014: The Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program, Active. Paediatr Child Health. 2016;21:274.
  40. Bettinger JA, Scheifele DW, Halperin SA, Vaudry W, Findlow J, Borrow R, et al. , members of the Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program, Active (IMPACT). Diversity of Canadian meningococcal serogroup B isolates and estimated coverage by an investigational meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB). Vaccine. 2013;32(1):124-30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.03.063  PMID: 23588089 
  41. Halperin SA, Wang EE, Law B, Mills E, Morris R, Déry P, et al. Epidemiological features of pertussis in hospitalized patients in Canada, 1991-1997: report of the Immunization Monitoring Program--Active (IMPACT). Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28(6):1238-43.  https://doi.org/10.1086/514792  PMID: 10451159 
  42. Bettinger JA, Halperin SA, De Serres G, Scheifele DW, Tam T. The effect of changing from whole-cell to acellular pertussis vaccine on the epidemiology of hospitalized children with pertussis in Canada. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26(1):31-5.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.inf.0000247055.81541.04  PMID: 17195702 
  43. Abu-Raya B, Bettinger JA, Vanderkooi OG, Vaudry W, Halperin SA, Sadarangani M, et al. Burden of children hospitalized with pertussis in Canada in the acellular pertussis vaccine era, 1999-2015. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020;9(2):118-27.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy128  PMID: 30535079 
  44. Le Saux N, Bettinger JA, Halperin SA, Vaudry W, Scheifele DW, Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program, Active (IMPACT). Substantial morbidity for hospitalized children with community-acquired rotavirus infections: 2005-2007 IMPACT surveillance in Canadian hospitals. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29(9):879-82.  https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e3181e20c94  PMID: 20467353 
  45. Le Saux N, Halperin S, Scheifele D, Vaudry W, Bettinger JA, on behalf of Immunization Monitoring Program ACTive (IMPACT) investigators. Rotavirus hospitalizations in Canada: A decade of surveillance. Canadian Immunization Conference 2016; Ottawa, Ontario, 2016.
  46. Law B, MacDonald N, Halperin S, Scheifele D, Déry P, Jadavji T, et al. The Immunization Monitoring Program Active (IMPACT) prospective five year study of Canadian children hospitalized for chickenpox or an associated complication. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19(11):1053-9.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00006454-200011000-00005  PMID: 11099085 
  47. Tan B, McConnell A, Thibeault R, Jadavji T, Reyes Domingo F, Samson H, Severini A, et al. Varicella hospitalizations in IMPACT (Immunization Monitoring Program, ACTive) centers after introduction of 1- and 2- dose varicella vaccination programs between 2000 and 2015. Canadian Paediatric Society Annual Meeting; Quebec City, QC 2018.
  48. Tran D, Vaudry W, Moore DL, Bettinger JA, Halperin SA, Scheifele DW, et al. , IMPACT investigators. Comparison of children hospitalized with seasonal versus pandemic influenza A, 2004-2009. Pediatrics. 2012;130(3):397-406.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-3216  PMID: 22931901 
  49. Burton C, Vaudry W, Moore D, Bettinger JA, Tran D, Halperin SA, et al. , IMPACT investigators. Burden of seasonal influenza in children with neurodevelopmental conditions. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014;33(7):710-4.  https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000000272  PMID: 24918745 
  50. Tran D, Vaudry W, Moore D, Bettinger JA, Halperin SA, Scheifele DW, et al. , members of the Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program Active. Hospitalization for Influenza A Versus B. Pediatrics. 2016;138(3):e20154643.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-4643  PMID: 27535144 
  51. Buttery JP, Danchin MH, Lee KJ, Carlin JB, McIntyre PB, Elliott EJ, et al. , PAEDS/APSU Study Group. Intussusception following rotavirus vaccine administration: post-marketing surveillance in the National Immunization Program in Australia. Vaccine. 2011;29(16):3061-6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.01.088  PMID: 21316503 
  52. Carlin JB, Macartney KK, Lee KJ, Quinn HE, Buttery J, Lopert R, et al. Intussusception risk and disease prevention associated with rotavirus vaccines in Australia’s National Immunization Program. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57(10):1427-34.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cit520  PMID: 23964090 
  53. Quinn HE, Gidding HF, Marshall HS, Booy R, Elliott EJ, Richmond P, et al. , PAEDS (Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance) Network. Varicella vaccine effectiveness over 10 years in Australia; moderate protection from 1-dose program. J Infect. 2019;78(3):220-5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2018.11.009  PMID: 30528868 
  54. Macartney KK, Gidding HF, Trinh L, Wang H, McRae J, Crawford N, et al. , PAEDS (Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance) Network. Febrile seizures following measles and varicella vaccines in young children in Australia. Vaccine. 2015;33(11):1412-7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.10.071  PMID: 25444797 
  55. Macartney K, Gidding HF, Trinh L, Wang H, Dey A, Hull B, et al. , Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance Network. Evaluation of Combination Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella Vaccine Introduction in Australia. JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171(10):992-8.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.1965  PMID: 28806450 
  56. Deng L, Gidding HF, Crawford N, Buttery J, Gold M, Richmond P, et al. Post vaccination febrile seizure severity and outcome. Pediatrics. 2019;143(5):e20182120.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-2120 
  57. Dodd CN, Romio SA, Black S, Vellozzi C, Andrews N, Sturkenboom M, et al. , Global H1N1 GBS Consortium. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barré Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines. Vaccine. 2013;31(40):4448-58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.06.032  PMID: 23770307 
  58. McRae JE, Quinn HE, Saravanos GL, McMinn A, Britton PN, Wood N, et al. Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) annual report 2016: Prospective hospital-based surveillance for serious paediatric conditions. Commun Dis Intell (2018). 2019;43:43.  https://doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2019.43.5  PMID: 30727704 
  59. Khandaker G, Lester-Smith D, Zurynski Y, Elliott EJ, Booy R. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal influenza A (H3N2) in children’s hospital, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1960-2.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101670  PMID: 22000384 
  60. Khandaker G, Zurynski Y, Buttery J, Marshall H, Richmond PC, Dale RC, et al. Neurologic complications of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: surveillance in 6 pediatric hospitals. Neurology. 2012;79(14):1474-81.  https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e31826d5ea7  PMID: 22993280 
  61. Blyth CC, Macartney KK, Hewagama S, Senenayake S, Friedman ND, Simpson G, et al. Influenza epidemiology, vaccine coverage and vaccine effectiveness in children admitted to sentinel Australian hospitals in 2014: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN). Euro Surveill. 2016;21(30):30301.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.30.30301  PMID: 27494798 
  62. Cheng AC, Holmes M, Dwyer DE, Irving L, Korman T, Senenayake S, et al. Influenza epidemiology in patients admitted to sentinel Australian hospitals in 2016: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN). Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2017;41(4):E337-47. PMID: 29864387 
  63. Cheng AC, Macartney KK, Waterer GW, Kotsimbos T, Kelly PM, Blyth CC, et al. , Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) Investigators. Repeated vaccination does not appear to impact upon influenza vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization with confirmed influenza. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;64(11):1564-72.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix209  PMID: 28329167 
  64. Li-Kim-Moy J, Yin JK, Blyth CC, Kesson A, Booy R, Cheng AC, et al. Influenza hospitalizations in Australian children. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145(7):1451-60.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268816003381  PMID: 28162130 
  65. Quinn HE, Comeau J, Marshall H, Elliott E, Crawford N, Blyth C, et al. Effectiveness of maternal vaccination among infants aged <6 months hospitalised with pertussis. Public Health Association Australia 16th National Immunisation Conference 2018; Adelaide 2018.
  66. Marshall HS, McIntyre P, Richmond P, Buttery JP, Royle JA, Gold MS, et al. Changes in patterns of hospitalized children with varicella and of associated varicella genotypes after introduction of varicella vaccine in Australia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32(5):530-7.  https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e31827e92b7  PMID: 23249914 
  67. Marshall HS, Clarke M, Heath C, Quinn H, Richmond PC, Crawford N, et al. , PAEDS Investigators. Severe and complicated varicella and associated genotypes 10 years after introduction of a one dose varicella vaccine program. J Infect Dis. 2019;219(3):391-9.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy518  PMID: 30184182 
  68. Britton PN, Dale RC, Elliott E, Festa M, Macartney K, Booy R, et al. Pilot surveillance for childhood encephalitis in Australia using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network. Epidemiol Infect. 2016;144(10):2117-27. PMID: 26916674
  69. Britton PN, Blyth CC, Macartney K, Dale RC, Li-Kim-Moy J, Khandaker G, et al. , Australian Childhood Encephalitis (ACE) Study Investigators, Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) Investigators, and Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) Network. The spectrum and burden of influenza-associated neurological disease in children: combined encephalitis and influenza sentinel site surveillance from Australia, 2013-2015. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65(4):653-60.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix412  PMID: 29017268 
  70. Thielemans E, Oliver J, McMinn A, Baker C, Britton PN, Clark J, et al. Clinical Description and Outcomes of Australian children with invasive Group A Streptococcal disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020;39(5):379-84.  https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002596  PMID: 32091492 
  71. Hirve S, Crawford N, Palekar R, Zhang W, Bancej C, Barr I, et al. , WHO RSV surveillance Group. Clinical characteristics, predictors, and performance of case definition-Interim results from the WHO global respiratory syncytial virus surveillance pilot. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2019;irv.12688.  https://doi.org/10.1111/irv.12688  PMID: 31670892 

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary data

Submit comment
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error