1887
Rapid communication Open Access
Like 0

Abstract

A zoonotic A/sw/H1N1 1C.2.2 influenza virus infection was detected in a German child that presented with influenza-like illness, including high fever. There was a history of close contact with pigs 3 days before symptom onset. The child recovered within 3 days. No other transmissions were observed. Serological investigations of the virus isolate revealed cross-reactions with ferret antisera against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, indicating a closer antigenic relationship with A(H1N1)pdm09 than with the former seasonal H1N1 viruses.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.42.2001638
2020-10-22
2020-12-02
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.42.2001638
Loading
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/eurosurveillance/25/42/eurosurv-25-42-2.html?itemId=/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.42.2001638&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Dürrwald R, Krumbholz A, Baumgarte S, Schlegel M, Vahlenkamp TW, Selbitz H-J, et al. Swine influenza A vaccines, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, and cross-reactivity. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(6):1029-30.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1606.100138  PMID: 20507767 
  2. Sun H, Xiao Y, Liu J, Wang D, Li F, Wang C, et al. Prevalent Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with 2009 pandemic viral genes facilitating human infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2020;117(29):17204-10.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1921186117  PMID: 32601207 
  3. World Health Organization (WHO). Influenza at the human-animal interface. Summary and assessment, from 9 May to 10 July 2020. Geneva: WHO; 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/Influenza_Summary_IRA_HA_interface_10_07_2020.pdf?ua=1
  4. World Health Organization (WHO). Antigenic and genetic characteristics of zoonotic influenza A viruses and development of candidate vaccine viruses for pandemic preparedness. Geneva: WHO; 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/202009_zoonotic_vaccinevirusupdate.pdf?ua=1
  5. Anderson TK, Macken CA, Lewis NS, Scheuermann RH, Van Reeth K, Brown IH, et al. A phylogeny-based global nomenclature system and automated annotation tool for h1 hemagglutinin genes from swine influenza A viruses. MSphere. 2016;1(6):e00275-16.  https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00275-16  PMID: 27981236 
  6. Lu G, Rowley T, Garten R, Donis RO. FluGenome: a web tool for genotyping influenza A virus. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35(Web Server issue):W275-9.  https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkm365  PMID: 17537820 
  7. Fraaij PLA, Wildschut ED, Houmes RJ, Swaan CM, Hoebe CJ, de Jonge HCC, et al. Severe acute respiratory infection caused by swine influenza virus in a child necessitating extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), the Netherlands, October 2016. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(48):30416.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.48.30416  PMID: 27934581 
  8. Zell R, Krumbholz A, Eitner A, Krieg R, Halbhuber KJ, Wutzler P. Prevalence of PB1-F2 of influenza A viruses. J Gen Virol. 2007;88(Pt 2):536-46.  https://doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.82378-0  PMID: 17251572 
  9. Xu G, Zhang X, Liu Q, Bing G, Hu Z, Sun H, et al. PA-X protein contributes to virulence of triple-reassortant H1N2 influenza virus by suppressing early immune responses in swine. Virology. 2017;508:45-53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2017.05.002  PMID: 28494344 
  10. Wedde M, Wählisch S, Wolff T, Schweiger B. Predominance of HA-222D/G polymorphism in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses associated with fatal and severe outcomes recently circulating in Germany. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57059.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057059  PMID: 23451145 
  11. Dornfeld D, Petric PP, Hassan E, Zell R, Schwemmle M. Eurasian Avian-Like Swine Influenza A Viruses Escape Human MxA Restriction through Distinct Mutations in Their Nucleoprotein. J Virol. 2019;93(2):e00997-18. PMID: 30355693 
  12. Mänz B, Dornfeld D, Götz V, Zell R, Zimmermann P, Haller O, et al. Pandemic influenza A viruses escape from restriction by human MxA through adaptive mutations in the nucleoprotein. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(3):e1003279.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003279  PMID: 23555271 
  13. Neumann G, Noda T, Kawaoka Y. Emergence and pandemic potential of swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus. Nature. 2009;459(7249):931-9.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08157  PMID: 19525932 
  14. Buda S, Haas W, Baillot A, Beyrer K, Monazahian M, Pulz M, et al. Humane Fälle mit Infektion durch Schweineinfluenzaviren. [Human cases of infection with swine influenzaviruses]. Epid Bulletin. 2011;39:357-9. German. Available from: https://www.rki.de/DE/Content/Infekt/EpidBull/Archiv/2011/Ausgaben/39_11.pdf?__blob=publicationFile
  15. Henritzi D, Petric PP, Lewis NS, Graaf A, Pessia A, Starick E, et al. Surveillance of European domestic pig populations identifies an emerging reservoir of potentially zoonotic swine influenza A viruses. Cell Host Microbe. 2020;28(4):614-627.e6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.07.006  PMID: 32721380 
  16. Zell R, Groth M, Krumbholz A, Lange J, Philipps A, Dürrwald R. Displacement of the Gent/1999 human-like swine H1N2 influenza A virus lineage by novel H1N2 reassortants in Germany. Arch Virol. 2020;165(1):55-67.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04457-w  PMID: 31696308 
  17. Zell R, Groth M, Krumbholz A, Lange J, Philipps A, Dürrwald R. Novel reassortant swine H3N2 influenza A viruses in Germany. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):14296.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71275-5  PMID: 32868846 
  18. Zell R, Groth M, Krumhbolz A, Lange J, Philipps A, Dürrwald R. Cocirculation of swine H1N1 influenza A virus lineages in Germany. Viruses. 2020;12(7):762.  https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070762  PMID: 32679903 
  19. Krumbholz A, Schmidtke M, Bergmann S, Motzke S, Bauer K, Stech J, et al. High prevalence of amantadine resistance among circulating European porcine influenza A viruses. J Gen Virol. 2009;90(Pt 4):900-8.  https://doi.org/10.1099/vir.2008.007260-0  PMID: 19223487 
  20. Hurt AC. The epidemiology and spread of drug resistant human influenza viruses. Curr Opin Virol. 2014;8:22-9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2014.04.009  PMID: 24866471 
  21. Dong G, Peng C, Luo J, Wang C, Han L, Wu B, et al. Adamantane-resistant influenza a viruses in the world (1902-2013): frequency and distribution of M2 gene mutations. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0119115.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119115  PMID: 25768797 
  22. Bowman AS, Walia RR, Nolting JM, Vincent AL, Killian ML, Zentkovich MM, et al. Influenza A(H3N2) virus in swine at agricultural fairs and transmission to humans, Michigan and Ohio, USA, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1551-5.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170847  PMID: 28820376 
  23. Van Reeth K, Nicoll A. A human case of swine influenza virus infection in Europe--implications for human health and research. Euro Surveill. 2009;14(7):19124. PMID: 19232229 
  24. Myers KP, Olsen CW, Gray GC. Cases of swine influenza in humans: a review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(8):1084-8.  https://doi.org/10.1086/512813  PMID: 17366454 
  25. Krammer F. The human antibody response to influenza A virus infection and vaccination. Nat Rev Immunol. 2019;19(6):383-97.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0143-6  PMID: 30837674 
  26. Wrammert J, Koutsonanos D, Li G-M, Edupuganti S, Sui J, Morrissey M, et al. Broadly cross-reactive antibodies dominate the human B cell response against 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection. J Exp Med. 2011;208(1):181-93.  https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20101352  PMID: 21220454 
  27. Hoschler K, Thompson C, Casas I, Ellis J, Galiano M, Andrews N, et al. Population susceptibility to North American and Eurasian swine influenza viruses in England, at three time points between 2004 and 2011. Euro Surveill. 2013;18(36):20578.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES2013.18.36.20578  PMID: 24079379 
  28. Vandoorn E, Leroux-Roels I, Leroux-Roels G, Parys A, Vincent A, Van Reeth K. Detection of H1 swine influenza A virus antibodies in human serum samples by age group. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(9):2118-28.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2609.191796  PMID: 32818398 
  29. Lange J, Groth M, Schlegel M, Krumbholz A, Wieczorek K, Ulrich R, et al. Reassortants of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and establishment of a novel porcine H1N2 influenza virus, lineage in Germany. Vet Microbiol. 2013;167(3-4):345-56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.09.024  PMID: 24139631 
  30. Fu Y, Dürrwald R, Meng F, Tong J, Wu N-H, Su A, et al. Infection studies in pigs and porcine airway epithelial cells reveal an evolution of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza A viruses toward lower virulence. J Infect Dis. 2019;219(10):1596-604.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy719  PMID: 30776304 
/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.42.2001638
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary data

Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error