Rapid communication Open Access
Like 0


High coronavirus incidence has prompted the Netherlands to implement a second lockdown. To elucidate the epidemic’s development preceding this second wave, we analysed weekly test positivity in public test locations by population subgroup between 1 June and 17 October 2020. Hospitality and public transport workers, driving instructors, hairdressers and aestheticians had higher test positivity compared with a reference group of individuals without a close-contact occupation. Workers in childcare, education and healthcare showed lower test positivity.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Core Team; 2019. Available from: https://www.R-project.org/
  2. Ludvigsson JF. Systematic review of COVID-19 in children shows milder cases and a better prognosis than adults. Acta Paediatr. 2020;109(6):1088-95.  https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.15270  PMID: 32202343 
  3. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). COVID-19 in children and the role of school settings in COVID-19 transmission, 6 August 2020. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/children-and-school-settings-covid-19-transmission
  4. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). COVID-19 clusters and outbreaks in occupational settings in the EU/EEA and the UK. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/covid-19-clusters-and-outbreaks-occupational-settings-eueea-and-uk
  5. Koppeschaar CE, Colizza V, Guerrisi C, Turbelin C, Duggan J, Edmunds WJ, et al. Influenzanet: Citizens Among 10 Countries Collaborating to Monitor Influenza in Europe. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2017;3(3):e66.  https://doi.org/10.2196/publichealth.7429  PMID: 28928112 
  6. UK Office for National Statistics. Coronavirus (COVID-19) related deaths by occupation, England and Wales: deaths registered between 9 March and 25 May 2020. London: UK Office for National Statistics; 2020. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/causesofdeath/bulletins/coronaviruscovid19relateddeathsbyoccupationenglandandwales/deathsregisteredbetween9marchand25may2020
  7. UK Office for National Statistics. Coronavirus (COVID-19) related deaths by occupation, before and during lockdown, England and Wales. London:UK Office for National Statistics; 2020. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/causesofdeath/bulletins/coronaviruscovid19relateddeathsbyoccupationbeforeandduringlockdownenglandandwales/deathsregisteredbetween9marchand30jun2020
  8. Mutambudzi M, Niedzwiedz CL, Macdonald EB, Leyland AH, Mair FS, Anderson JJ, et al. Occupation and risk of severe COVID-19: prospective cohort study of 120 075 UK Biobank participants; medRxiv 2020. Available from: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.22.20109892v2
  9. National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). Archief weekrapportages epidemiologische situatie COVID-19 in Nederland. [Weekly update epidemiological situation COVID-19 in the Netherlands]. Bilthoven: RIVM; 2020. Dutch. Available from: https://www.rivm.nl/sites/default/files/2020-10/COVID-19_WebSite_rapport_wekelijks_20201027_1159.pdf
  10. National Intensive Care Evaluation (NICE). COVID-19 admissions. Amsterdam: NICE; 2020. Available from: https://www.stichting-nice.nl/covid-19-op-de-ic.jsp

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary data

Submit comment
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error