1887
Outbreaks Open Access
Like 0

Abstract

We describe an outbreak of Agbeni sequence type (ST)2009 infections in Norway. Between 31 December 2018 and 16 March 2019, 56 cases (33 female and 23 male; median age: 50 years, range: 2–91) were reported, of which 21 were hospitalised. Cases were defined as people living in Norway, with laboratory-confirmed infection with . Agbeni ST2009 and cluster type (CT)2489, reported between 31 December 2018 and 30 March 2019. We conducted a case–control study, with three controls per case (matched by age, sex and municipality), using the Norwegian National Registry. Cases were more likely to have consumed a commercial mix of dried exotic fruits than controls (cases = 8, controls = 31; odds ratio: 50; 95% confidence interval: 3–2,437). The outbreak strain was confirmed by whole genome sequencing (WGS) and was isolated from the fruit mix consumed by cases, resulting in withdrawal from the market on 6 March 2019.The fruit mix consisted of fruits from different countries and continents. It was packed in Italy and distributed to several European countries, including Norway. However, no other countries reported cases. This outbreak highlights that dried fruits could represent a risk in terms of food-borne infections, which is of particular concern in ready-to-eat products.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.14.2000221
2021-04-08
2021-04-23
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.14.2000221
Loading
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/eurosurveillance/26/14/eurosurv-26-14-1.html?itemId=/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.14.2000221&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. (ECDC). The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2017. In., vol. EFSA-Q-2017-00751. Parma and Stockholm: EFSA and ECDC; 2018. Available from: https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5500
  2. Lyngstad TM, Krossness MM, Salamanca BV, Lange H, Nygard K, Jore S, et al. Årsrapport 2018. Overvåking av infeksjonssykdommer som smitter fra mat, vann og dyr, inkludert vektorbårne sykdommer. [Surveillance of food- and waterborne diseases and zoonoses, including vector-borne diseases. Yearly report 2018]. Oslo: Folkehelseinstituttet; 2019. Norwegian.Available from: https://www.fhi.no/globalassets/dokumenterfiler/rapporter/2019/arsrapport-2018-overvakning-av-infeksjonssykdommer-som-smitter-fra-mat-vann-og-dyr-inkludert-vektorbarne-sykdommer.pdf
  3. Jorgensen HJ, Hauge K, Lange H, MacDonald E, Lyngstad TM, Heier B. The Norwegian Zoonoses Report 2018. Oslo: Norwegian Veterinary Institute; 2019. Available from: https://www.vetinst.no/rapporter-og-publikasjoner/rapporter/2019/the-norwegian-zoonoses-report-2018
  4. MacDonald E, White R, Mexia R, Bruun T, Kapperud G, Brandal LT, et al. The role of domestic reservoirs in domestically acquired Salmonella infections in Norway: epidemiology of salmonellosis, 2000-2015, and results of a national prospective case-control study, 2010-2012. Epidemiol Infect. 2018;147:1-8. PMID: 30428947 
  5. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Outbreak of Salmonella Infections. Atlanta: CDC; 2019 Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/agbeni-11-18/index.html
  6. Koski L, Stevenson L, Huffman J, Robbins A, Latash J, Omoregie E, et al. Notes from the Field: An Outbreak of Salmonella Agbeni Infections Linked to Turtle Exposure - United States, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67(48):1350.  https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6748a5  PMID: 30521506 
  7. Taylor M, Brisdon S, Jeyes J, Stone J, Embree G, Paccagnella A, et al. Salmonella enterica serovar Agbeni, British Columbia, Canada, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(9):1542-3.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1809.120008  PMID: 22932699 
  8. Grimont PAD, Weill FX. Antigenic formulae of the Salmonella serovars. Paris: Institut Pasteur and World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Salmonella; 2007. Available from: https://www.pasteur.fr/sites/default/files/veng_0.pdf
  9. Achtman M, Wain J, Weill F-X, Nair S, Zhou Z, Sangal V, et al. Multilocus sequence typing as a replacement for serotyping in Salmonella enterica. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8(6):e1002776.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002776  PMID: 22737074 
  10. Alikhan N-F, Zhou Z, Sergeant MJ, Achtman M. A genomic overview of the population structure of Salmonella. PLoS Genet. 2018;14(4):e1007261.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1007261  PMID: 29621240 
  11. Siira L, Naseer U, Alfsnes K, Hermansen NO, Lange H, Brandal LT. Whole genome sequencing of Salmonella Chester reveals geographically distinct clusters, Norway, 2000 to 2016. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(4):1800186.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.4.1800186  PMID: 30696528 
  12. NordVal International (NMKL). Salmonella. Påvisning i livsmedel. [Salmonella. Detection in foods]. Bergen: NMKL; 1999. Swedish. Available from: https://www.nmkl.org/index.php/nb/webshop/item/salmonella-pavisning-i-livsmedel-nmkl-71-5-utg-1999
  13. Standard Norge. Microbiology of the food chain - Horizontal method for the detection, enumeration and serotyping of Salmonella - Part 1: Detection of Salmonella spp. (ISO 6579-1:2017). Oslo: Standard Norge; 2017. Available from: https://www.standard.no/no/Nettbutikk/produktkatalogen/Produktpresentasjon/?ProductID=919924
  14. Vugia DJ, Samuel M, Farley MM, Marcus R, Shiferaw B, Shallow S, et al. Invasive Salmonella infections in the United States, FoodNet, 1996-1999: incidence, serotype distribution, and outcome. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(s3) Suppl 3;S149-56.  https://doi.org/10.1086/381581  PMID: 15095184 
  15. Crump JA, Sjölund-Karlsson M, Gordon MA, Parry CM. Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Laboratory Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Antimicrobial Management of Invasive Salmonella Infections. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2015;28(4):901-37.  https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00002-15  PMID: 26180063 
  16. Zaidenstein R, Peretz C, Nissan I, Reisfeld A, Yaron S, Agmon V, et al. The epidemiology of extraintestinal non-typhoid Salmonella in Israel: the effects of patients’ age and sex. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;29(9):1103-9.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-010-0968-1  PMID: 20535625 
  17. Abbott SL, Portoni BA, Janda JM. Urinary tract infections associated with nontyphoidal Salmonella serogroups. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37(12):4177-8.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.37.12.4177-4178.1999  PMID: 10565958 
  18. Strawn LK, Schneider KR, Danyluk MD. Microbial safety of tropical fruits. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011;51(2):132-45.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390903502864  PMID: 21328109 
  19. Luna S, Taylor M, Galanis E, Asplin R, Huffman J, Wagner D, et al. Outbreak of Salmonella Chailey Infections Linked To Precut Coconut Pieces - United States and Canada, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67(39):1098-100.  https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6739a5  PMID: 30286052 
  20. Gibbs R, Pingault N, Mazzucchelli T, O’Reilly L, MacKenzie B, Green J, et al. An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Litchfield infection in Australia linked to consumption of contaminated papaya. J Food Prot. 2009;72(5):1094-8.  https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-72.5.1094  PMID: 19517740 
  21. Statistisk sentralbyrå (SSB). Forbrukerundersøkelsen. [The consumer survey]. Oslo: SSB; 2013. Norwegian. Available from: https://www.ssb.no/statbank/table/10249/tableViewLayout1/
  22. Centre for the Promotion of Imports from developing countries (CBI). Exporting processed fruit and vegetables and edible nuts to Europe. The Hague: CBI; 2020. Available from: https://www.cbi.eu/market-information/processed-fruit-vegetables-edible-nuts
  23. Beuchat LR, Mann DA. Survival of salmonella on dried fruits and in aqueous dried fruit homogenates as affected by temperature. J Food Prot. 2014;77(7):1102-9.  https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-13-549  PMID: 24988015 
  24. Kuusi M, Aavitsland P, Gondrosen B, Kapperud G. Incidence of gastroenteritis in Norway--a population-based survey. Epidemiol Infect. 2003;131(1):591-7.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268803008744  PMID: 12948356 
/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.14.2000221
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary data

Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error