Rapid communication Open Access
Like 0


We present a case of carbapenemase-producing NDM-1-positive Kottbus in an 82-year-old Danish man. The NDM-1 was also identified in and in the same patient on the same 43 kb IncN2 plasmid, suggesting in vivo inter-species plasmid transfer. A NCBI BLAST analysis of the plasmid (pAMA003584_NDM-1) identified 12 highly similar plasmids, all originating from east and south-east Asia. This case could be the first confirmed case of NDM-1-positive not related to travel outside Europe.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Toboldt A, Tietze E, Helmuth R, Junker E, Fruth A, Malorny B. Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Kottbus isolated in Germany from humans, food and animals. Vet Microbiol. 2014;170(1-2):97-108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.01.020  PMID: 24559660 
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Kottbus infections associated with eating alfalfa sprouts--Arizona, California, Colorado, and New Mexico, February-April 2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51(1):7-9. PMID: 11831433 
  3. Enkelmann J, von Laer A, Simon S, Fruth A, Lachmann R, Michaelis K, et al. Disentangling outbreaks using whole-genome sequencing: concurrent multistate outbreaks of Salmonella Kottbus in Germany, 2017. Epidemiol Infect. 2020;148:e51.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820000394  PMID: 32052718 
  4. Palmera-Suárez R, García P, García A, Barrasa A, Herrera D, Investigation Team. Salmonella Kottbus outbreak in infants in Gran Canaria (Spain), caused by bottled water, August-November 2006. Euro Surveill. 2007;12(7):E070712.2. https://doi.org/10.2807/esw.12.28.03235-en  PMID: 17868561 
  5. Ryder RW, Crosby-Ritchie A, McDonough B, Hall WJ 3rd. Human milk contaminated with Salmonella kottbus. A cause of nosocomial illness in infants. JAMA. 1977;238(14):1533-4.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1977.03280150103039  PMID: 578222 
  6. Fernández J, Guerra B, Rodicio MR. Resistance to carbapenems in non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars from humans, animals and food. Vet Sci. 2018;5(2):40.  https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5020040  PMID: 29642473 
  7. The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Clinical breakpoints and dosing of antibiotics. Växjö: EUCAST. [Accessed: 29 Nov 2020]. Available from: http://www.eucast.org/clinical_breakpoints/
  8. Jenkins S, Ledeboer NA, Westblade LF, Burnham CA, Faron ML, Bergman Y, et al. Evaluation of NG-test carba 5 for rapid phenotypic detection and differentiation of five common carbapenemase families: results of a multicenter clinical evaluation. J Clin Microbiol. 2020;58(7):58.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00344-20  PMID: 32376668 
  9. Wick RR, Judd LM, Gorrie CL, Holt KE. Unicycler: Resolving bacterial genome assemblies from short and long sequencing reads. PLOS Comput Biol. 2017;13(6):e1005595.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005595  PMID: 28594827 
  10. Carattoli A, Zankari E, García-Fernández A, Voldby Larsen M, Lund O, Villa L, et al. In silico detection and typing of plasmids using PlasmidFinder and plasmid multilocus sequence typing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(7):3895-903.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02412-14  PMID: 24777092 
  11. European Food Safety Authority; European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The European Union One Health 2019 Zoonoses Report. EFSA J. 2021;19(2):e06406.  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6406  PMID: 33680134 
  12. Savard P, Gopinath R, Zhu W, Kitchel B, Rasheed JK, Tekle T, et al. First NDM-positive Salmonella sp. strain identified in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55(12):5957-8.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.05719-11  PMID: 21968356 
  13. Day MR, Meunier D, Doumith M, de Pinna E, Woodford N, Hopkins KL. Carbapenemase-producing Salmonella enterica isolates in the UK. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015;70(7):2165-7.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkv075  PMID: 25795771 
  14. European Food Safety Authority; European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The European Union Summary Report on Antimicrobial Resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2018/2019. EFSA J. 2021;19(4):e06490. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6490  PMID: 33868492 
  15. DANMAP. Use of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, food and humans in Denmark. ISSN 1600-2032. Copenhagen: Statens Serum Institut, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark; 2018. Available from: www.danmap.org

Data & Media loading...

Submit comment
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error