1887
Research Open Access
Like 0

Abstract

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic urges for cheap, reliable, and rapid technologies for disinfection and decontamination. One frequently proposed method is ultraviolet (UV)-C irradiation. UV-C doses necessary to achieve inactivation of high-titre SARS-CoV-2 are poorly defined.

Aim: We investigated whether short exposure of SARS-CoV-2 to UV-C irradiation sufficiently reduces viral infectivity and doses necessary to achieve an at least 6-log reduction in viral titres.

Methods: Using a box and two handheld systems designed to decontaminate objects and surfaces, we evaluated the efficacy of 254 nm UV-C treatment to inactivate surface dried high-titre SARS-CoV-2.

Results: Drying for 2 hours did not have a major impact on the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, indicating that exhaled virus in droplets or aerosols stays infectious on surfaces for at least a certain amount of time. Short exposure of high titre surface dried virus (3–5*10^6 IU/ml) with UV-C light (16 mJ/cm2) resulted in a total inactivation of SARS-CoV-2. Dose-dependency experiments revealed that 3.5 mJ/cm2 were still effective to achieve a > 6-log reduction in viral titres, whereas 1.75 mJ/cm2 lowered infectivity only by one order of magnitude.

Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 is rapidly inactivated by relatively low doses of UV-C irradiation and the relationship between UV-C dose and log-viral titre reduction of surface residing SARS-CoV-2 is nonlinear. Our findings emphasize that it is necessary to assure sufficient and complete exposure of all relevant areas by integrated UV-C doses of at least 3.5 mJ/cm2 at 254 nm. Altogether, UV-C treatment is an effective non-chemical option to decontaminate surfaces from high-titre infectious SARS-CoV-2.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.42.2001718
2021-10-21
2021-11-29
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.42.2001718
Loading
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/eurosurveillance/26/42/eurosurv-26-42-3.html?itemId=/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.42.2001718&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Walker CM, Ko G. Effect of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation on viral aerosols. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41(15):5460-5.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es070056u  PMID: 17822117 
  2. Qureshi Z, Yassin MH. Role of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection in infection control and environmental cleaning. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2013;13(3):191-5.  https://doi.org/10.2174/1871526511313030007  PMID: 23961739 
  3. Simmons S, Dale C, Holt J, Velasquez K, Stibich M. Role of Ultraviolet Disinfection in the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;996:255-66.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56017-5_21  PMID: 29124706 
  4. Duan SM, Zhao XS, Wen RF, Huang JJ, Pi GH, Zhang SX, et al. Stability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and environment and its sensitivity to heating and UV irradiation. Biomed Environ Sci. 2003;16(3):246-55. PMID: 14631830 
  5. Tsunetsugu-Yokota Y. Large-scale preparation of UV-inactivated SARS coronavirus virions for vaccine antigen. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;454:119-26.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-181-9_11  PMID: 19057880 
  6. Darnell ME, Subbarao K, Feinstone SM, Taylor DR. Inactivation of the coronavirus that induces severe acute respiratory syndrome, SARS-CoV. J Virol Methods. 2004;121(1):85-91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2004.06.006  PMID: 15350737 
  7. Malayeri AH, Mohseni M, Cairns B, Bolton J. Fluence (UV Dose) Required to Achieve Incremental Log Inactivation of Bacteria, Protozoa, Viruses and Algae. IUVA News.2016;18:4-6.
  8. Inagaki H, Saito A, Sugiyama H, Okabayashi T, Fujimoto S. Rapid inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 with deep-UV LED irradiation. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020;9(1):1744-7.  https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1796529  PMID: 32673522 
  9. Kitagawa H, Nomura T, Nazmul T, Omori K, Shigemoto N, Sakaguchi T, et al. Effectiveness of 222-nm ultraviolet light on disinfecting SARS-CoV-2 surface contamination. Am J Infect Control. 2021;49(3):299-301.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2020.08.022  PMID: 32896604 
  10. Heilingloh CS, Aufderhorst UW, Schipper L, Dittmer U, Witzke O, Yang D, et al. Susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 to UV irradiation. Am J Infect Control. 2020;48(10):1273-5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2020.07.031  PMID: 32763344 
  11. Criscuolo E, Diotti RA, Ferrarese R, Alippi C, Viscardi G, Signorelli C, et al. Fast inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by UV-C and ozone exposure on different materials. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2021;10(1):206-10.  https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2021.1872354  PMID: 33399524 
  12. Sabino CP, Sellera FP, Sales-Medina DF, Machado RRG, Durigon EL, Freitas-Junior LH, et al. UV-C (254 nm) lethal doses for SARS-CoV-2. Photodiagn Photodyn Ther. 2020;32:101995.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.101995  PMID: 32916328 
  13. Storm N, McKay LGA, Downs SN, Johnson RI, Birru D, de Samber M, et al. Rapid and complete inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by ultraviolet-C irradiation. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):22421.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79600-8  PMID: 33380727 
  14. Xie X, Muruato A, Lokugamage KG, Narayanan K, Zhang X, Zou J, et al. An infectious cDNA clone of SARS-CoV-2. Cell Host Microbe. 2020;27(5):841-848.e3.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.04.004  PMID: 32289263 
  15. Weber DJ, Kanamori H, Rutala WA. ‘No touch’ technologies for environmental decontamination: focus on ultraviolet devices and hydrogen peroxide systems. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2016;29(4):424-31.  https://doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000284  PMID: 27257798 
  16. Pratelli A. Canine coronavirus inactivation with physical and chemical agents. Vet J. 2008;177(1):71-9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.03.019  PMID: 17513145 
  17. van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(16):1564-7.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2004973  PMID: 32182409 
/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.42.2001718
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary data

Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error