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In France, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been recommended in 2016 for men who have sex with men (MSM) up to age 26 years.


We aimed to estimate HPV vaccine coverage in 18–28 year-old MSM and identify uptake determinants.


We collected data on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, sexually transmitted diseases (STI) screening and vaccination uptake using a voluntary cross-sectional online survey conducted in 2019 targeting MSM. We calculated coverage of at least one dose of HPV vaccine and prevalence ratios (PR) of determinants with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Poisson regression.


Of 9,469 respondents (age range: 18–28 years), 15% (95% CI: 14–16) reported being vaccinated for HPV. Coverage was significantly higher among MSM < 24 years (PR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.13–1.39), with education level below university degree (PR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.08–1.32), living in rural areas (PR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.08–1.36), attending sex parties (PR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03–1.33), using HIV-related biomedical prevention methods (PR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.12–1.54), with STI diagnosis (PR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08–1.38) and with hepatitis A or B vaccination (PR: 4.56; 95% CI: 3.63–5.81 vs PR: 3.35; 95% CI: 2.53–4.44).


The HPV vaccination uptake among MSM in France was not satisfactory. It was higher among MSM benefitting from other vaccinations and biomedical preventive methods against HIV, suggesting a synergistic effect of the national preventive sexual health recommendations for MSM. Further efforts to improve HPV vaccination coverage targeting MSM are warranted.


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