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In early June 2018, an increase in non-travel-related cases of non- Legionnaires’ disease (LD) was observed in Sweden and a national outbreak investigation was started. Outbreak cases were defined as notified confirmed or probable cases of non- LD, with symptom onset after 1 April 2018. From April to August 2018, 41 cases were reported, 30 of whom were identified as We conducted a case–control study with 27 cases and 182 matched controls. Results from the case–control study indicated that gardening and handling commercial bagged soil, especially dusty dry soil, were associated with disease. was isolated in soils from cases’ homes or gardens, but joint analysis of soil and human specimens did not identify any genetic clonality. Substantial polyclonality was noted between and within soil samples, which made finding a genetic match between soil and human specimens unlikely. Therefore, whole genome sequencing may be of limited use to confirm a specific soil as a vehicle of transmission for Handling soil for residential gardening was associated with disease and the isolation of in different soils provided further evidence for non infection from soil.


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