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In August 2021, a man who has sex with men was diagnosed with HIV-1 infection despite using event-driven pre-exposure prophylaxis for over 2 years with self-reported excellent adherence. Sequencing identified resistance-associated mutations (RAM) M184V and K65R, conferring resistance to emtricitabine and tenofovir, and RAM V108I and E138A. Background RAM prevalence was two of 164 (1.2%) new HIV diagnoses in Amsterdam (2017–19). We reiterate the need for frequent HIV testing among PrEP users and additional testing in case of symptoms.


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