1887
Surveillance Open Access
Like 0

Abstract

Introduction

In France, three complementary surveillance networks involving hospitals and paediatrician practices currently allow pertussis surveillance among infants (<1 year old) and children (1–12 years old). Data on incidences among adolescents (13–17 years old) and adults (≥ 18 years) are scarce. In 2017, a sentinel surveillance system called Sentinelles network, was implemented among general practitioners (GPs).

Aim

The purpose of Sentinelles network is to assess pertussis incidence, monitor the cases’ age distribution and evaluate the impact of the country’s vaccination policy. We present the results from the first 4 years of this surveillance.

Methods

GPs of the French Sentinelles network reported weekly numbers of epidemiologically or laboratory-confirmed cases and their characteristics.

Results

A total of 132 cases were reported over 2017–2020. Estimated national incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants were 17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 12–22) in 2017, 10 (95% CI: 6–14) in 2018, 15 (95% CI: 10–20) in 2019 and three (95% CI: 1–5) in 2020. The incidence rate was significantly lower in 2020 than in 2017–2019. Women were significantly more affected than men (83/132; 63% of women, p = 0.004); 66% (87/132) of cases were aged 15 years or over (median age: 31.5 years; range: 2 months–87 years). Among 37 vaccinated cases with data, 33 had received the recommended number of doses for their age.

Conclusions

These results concur with incidences reported in other European countries, and with studies showing that the incidences of several respiratory diseases decreased in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results also suggest a shift of morbidity towards older age groups, and a rapid waning of immunity after vaccination, justifying to continue this surveillance.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.17.2100515
2022-04-28
2022-05-23
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.17.2100515
Loading
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/eurosurveillance/27/17/eurosurv-27-17-1.html?itemId=/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.17.2100515&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bonmarin I, Bouraoui L, Guiso N, Levy-Bruhl D. La coqueluche: collecte de données et choix des stratégies vaccinales [Pertussis: data collection and vaccinal strategy]. Med Mal Infect. 2009;39(5):271-7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2009.02.009  PMID: 19362438 
  2. Guiso N, de La Rocque F, Njamkepo E, Lécuyer A, Levy C, Romain O, et al. , French Pediatrics Groups Association Clinique et Thérapeutique Infantile du Val de Marne and Association Française de Pédiatrie Ambulatoire. Pertussis surveillance in private pediatric practices, France, 2002-2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1159-61.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071246  PMID: 18598649 
  3. Aguas R, Gonçalves G, Gomes MG. Pertussis: increasing disease as a consequence of reducing transmission. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006;6(2):112-7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(06)70384-X  PMID: 16439331 
  4. Karsenty J-Y, Roure C, Vidal-Trecan G. La coqueluche en France. [Whooping cough in France]. BEH. 1990;19.
  5. Bégué P, Grimpel E, Roure C, Guiso N. La coqueluche en France: Nécessité de mise en place d'une surveillance. [Whooping cough in France: need for establishing a surveillance system]. BEH. 1992;48.
  6. Tubiana S, Belchior E, Guillot S, Guiso N, Lévy-Bruhl D, Renacoq Participants. Monitoring the Impact of Vaccination on Pertussis in Infants Using an Active Hospital-based Pediatric Surveillance Network: Results from 17 Years’ Experience, 1996-2012, France. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;34(8):814-20.  https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000000739  PMID: 25955837 
  7. Merdrignac L, Aït El Belghiti F, Pandolfi E, Jané M, Murphy J, Fabiánová K, et al. , PERTINENT Group, PERTINENT group. Incidence and severity of pertussis hospitalisations in infants aged less than 1 year in 37 hospitals of six EU/EEA countries, results of PERTINENT sentinel pilot surveillance system, December 2015 to December 2018. Euro Surveill. 2021;26(4).  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.4.1900762  PMID: 33509338 
  8. Guiso N, Levy C, Romain O, Guillot S, Werner A, Rondeau MC, et al. Whooping cough surveillance in France in pediatric private practice in 2006-2015. Vaccine. 2017;35(45):6083-8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.09.072  PMID: 28974408 
  9. Guiso N, Gallais JL, Gavazzi G, Pinquier D, Gaillat J. Incidence of pertussis in subjects aged 50years and older in France in 2013-2014. Med Mal Infect. 2018;48(1):30-6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2017.09.002  PMID: 29037454 
  10. Santé publique France (SPF). Couverture vaccinale [Vaccination rate]. Bulletin de Santé Publique Edition Nationale. 2021. Available from: https://professionnels.vaccination-info-service.fr/var/vis/storage/original/application/download/BSP_nat_vaccination_180521.pdf
  11. Cohen R, Gaudelus J, Denis F, Stahl JP, Chevaillier O, Pujol P, et al. Pertussis vaccination coverage among French parents of infants after 10years of cocoon strategy. Med Mal Infect. 2016;46(4):188-93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2016.03.005  PMID: 27132209 
  12. Marchal C, Belhassen M, Guiso N, Jacoud F, Van Ganse E, Le Pannerer M, et al. Vaccination coverage rates for Diphtheria, Tetanus, Poliomyelitis and Pertussis booster vaccination in France between 2013 and 2017: Learnings from an analysis of National Health System Real-World Data. Vaccine. 2021;39(3):505-11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.12.021  PMID: 33357956 
  13. Flahault A, Blanchon T, Dorléans Y, Toubiana L, Vibert JF, Valleron AJ. Virtual surveillance of communicable diseases: a 20-year experience in France. Stat Methods Med Res. 2006;15(5):413-21.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0962280206071639  PMID: 17089946 
  14. Souty C, Turbelin C, Blanchon T, Hanslik T, Le Strat Y, Boëlle PY. Improving disease incidence estimates in primary care surveillance systems. Popul Health Metr. 2014;12(1):19.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12963-014-0019-8  PMID: 25435814 
  15. Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE). Estimation de la population au 1ᵉʳ janvier 2021 - Séries par région, département, sexe et âge de 1975 à 2021. [Population estimate on 1 January 2021, results by region, department, sex and age from 1975 to 2021]. French. [accessed 30 Jan 2021]. Available from: https://www.insee.fr/fr/statistiques/1893198#consulter.
  16. R Core Team. (2020). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria
  17. Tan T, Dalby T, Forsyth K, Halperin SA, Heininger U, Hozbor D, et al. Pertussis Across the Globe: Recent Epidemiologic Trends From 2000 to 2013. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;34(9):e222-32.  https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000000795  PMID: 26376316 
  18. Paireau J, Guillot S, Aït El Belghiti F, Matczak S, Trombert-Paolantoni S, Jacomo V, et al. Effect of change in vaccine schedule on pertussis epidemiology in France: a modelling and serological study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2022;22(2):265-73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00267-X  PMID: 34672963 
  19. National Reference Center for Whooping Cough and other Bordetella Infections. 2019 annual summary report. Paris: Institut Pasteur; 2020. Available from: https://www.pasteur.fr/fr/sante-publique/CNR/les-cnr/coqueluche-et-autres-bordetelloses/rapports-d-activite.
  20. Berbers G, van Gageldonk P, Kassteele JV, Wiedermann U, Desombere I, Dalby T, et al. , Serosurveillance Study Team. Circulation of pertussis and poor protection against diphtheria among middle-aged adults in 18 European countries. Nat Commun. 2021;12(1):2871.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23114-y  PMID: 34001895 
  21. Matczak S, Levy C, Fortas C, Cohen JF, Béchet S, El Belghiti FA, et al. Association between the COVID-19 pandemic and pertussis in France using multiple nationwide data sources. Preprint. 2021. Available at: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.07.16.21260367v1.full.pdf https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.07.16.21260367 
  22. Wymann MN, Richard J-L, Vidondo B, Heininger U. Prospective pertussis surveillance in Switzerland, 1991-2006. Vaccine. 2011;29(11):2058-65.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.01.017  PMID: 21251904 
  23. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Pertussis - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2018. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/AER_for_2018_pertussis.pdf. 2020.
  24. Leong RNF, Wood JG, Turner RM, Newall AT. Estimating seasonal variation in Australian pertussis notifications from 1991 to 2016: evidence of spring to summer peaks. Epidemiol Infect. 2019;147:e155.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818003680  PMID: 31063086 
  25. Peer V, Schwartz N, Green MS. A multi-country, multi-year, meta-analytic evaluation of the sex differences in age-specific pertussis incidence rates. PLoS One. 2020;15(4):e0231570.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231570  PMID: 32324790 
  26. Skowronski DM, De Serres G, MacDonald D, Wu W, Shaw C, Macnabb J, et al. The changing age and seasonal profile of pertussis in Canada. J Infect Dis. 2002;185(10):1448-53.  https://doi.org/10.1086/340280  PMID: 11992280 
  27. Yeoh DK, Foley DA, Minney-Smith CA, Martin AC, Mace AO, Sikazwe CT, et al. The impact of COVID-19 public health measures on detections of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in children during the 2020 Australian winter. Clin Infect Dis. 2021;72(12):2199-202.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1475  PMID: 32986804 
  28. Sullivan SG, Carlson S, Cheng AC, Chilver MB, Dwyer DE, Irwin M, et al. Where has all the influenza gone? The impact of COVID-19 on the circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses, Australia, March to September 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(47).  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.47.2001847  PMID: 33243355 
  29. Kuitunen I, Artama M, Mäkelä L, Backman K, Heiskanen-Kosma T, Renko M. Effect of Social Distancing Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Incidence of Viral Respiratory Tract Infections in Children in Finland During Early 2020. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020;39(12):e423-7.  https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002845  PMID: 32773660 
  30. Bhatti MM, Rucinski SL, Schwab JJ, Cole NC, Gebrehiwot SA, Patel R. Eight-Year Review of Bordetella pertussis Testing Reveals Seasonal Pattern in the United States. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2017;6(1):91-3. PMID: 26621328 
  31. Hitz DA, Tewald F, Eggers M. Seasonal Bordetella pertussis pattern in the period from 2008 to 2018 in Germany. BMC Infect Dis. 2020;20(1):474.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05199-w  PMID: 32620085 
  32. De Greeff SC, Dekkers AL, Teunis P, Rahamat-Langendoen JC, Mooi FR, De Melker HE. Seasonal patterns in time series of pertussis. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137(10):1388-95.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268809002489  PMID: 19327200 
  33. Zeng Q, Li D, Huang G, Xia J, Wang X, Zhang Y, et al. Time series analysis of temporal trends in the pertussis incidence in Mainland China from 2005 to 2016. Sci Rep. 2016;6(1):32367.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep32367  PMID: 27577101 
  34. Rossignol L, Debin M, Brisse S, Guillot S, Toubiana J, Ait El Belghiti F, et al. La coqueluche : histoire d'une maladie infantile. [Pertussis: history of an infantile disease]. Exercer. 2019;150:82-8. French.
  35. World Health Organisation (WHO). Pertussis - Surveillance standards. Geneva: WHO. [Accessed 3 Apr 2022]. Available from: https://www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/burden/vpd/WHO_SurveillanceVaccinePreventable_16_Pertussis_R1.pdf?ua=1
  36. Nguyen LB, Epelboin L, Gabarre J, Lecso M, Guillot S, Bricaire F, et al. Recurrent Bordetella holmesii bacteremia and nasal carriage in a patient receiving rituximab. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1703-5.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130345  PMID: 24050722 
  37. Haute Autorité de Santé. Recommandation vaccinale contre la coqueluche chez la femme enceinte. [Recommended immunisation schedule against pertussis for pregnant women]. 2022. French. Available from: https://www.has-sante.fr/upload/docs/application/pdf/2022-04/recommandation_vaccinale_contre_la_coqueluche_chez_la_femme_enceinte.pdf
/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.17.2100515
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary data

Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error