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Migrants face an increased risk of HIV infection and late presentation for HIV care.


To examine delays in HIV diagnosis, linkage to care (LTC), and risk of late presentation for migrants living with HIV in Denmark.


We conducted a population-based, nationwide study of adult migrants (n = 2,166) presenting for HIV care between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2020 in Denmark. Time from immigration to HIV diagnosis and from diagnosis to LTC, and late presentation were assessed, stratified by migrants’ geographical regions of origin, using descriptive statistics.


The demographics of the migrant population changed over time. Overall, migrants diagnosed with HIV after immigration to Denmark resided a median of 3.7 (IQR: 0.8–10.2) years in Denmark before diagnosis. Median time from HIV diagnosis to LTC was 6 (IQR: 0–24) days. Migrants diagnosed with HIV infection before immigration had a median of 38 (IQR: 0–105) days from arrival in Denmark to LTC. The corresponding median times for 2015–20 alone were 4.1 (IQR: 0.9–13.1) years, 0 (IQR: 0–8) days, and 62 (IQR: 25–152) days, respectively. The overall proportion of late presentation among migrants diagnosed with HIV after immigration was 60%, and highest among migrants from sub-Saharan Africa and East and South Asia.


HIV diagnosis is still substantially delayed in Danish migrants, while LTC is timely. The proportions with late presentation are high. These results call for targeted interventions to reduce the number of migrants with undiagnosed HIV infections and of late presenters.


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