Rapid communication Open Access
Like 0


The number of cases of infection or carriage and of countries reporting cases and outbreaks increased in the European Union and European Economic Area during 2020 and 2021. Eight countries reported 335 such cases in 2020 and 13 countries 655 cases in 2021. Five countries experienced outbreaks while one country reported regional endemicity. These findings highlight the need for adequate laboratory capacity and surveillance for early detection of and rapid implementation of control measures.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Kohlenberg A, Struelens MJ, Monnet DL, Plachouras D, Candida auris survey collaborative group. Candida auris: epidemiological situation, laboratory capacity and preparedness in European Union and European Economic Area countries, 2013 to 2017. Euro Surveill. 2018;23(13).  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.13.18-00136  PMID: 29616608 
  2. Plachouras D, Lötsch F, Kohlenberg A, Monnet DL, Candida auris survey collaborative group. Candida auris: epidemiological situation, laboratory capacity and preparedness in the European Union and European Economic Area*, January 2018 to May 2019. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(12).  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.12.2000240  PMID: 32234118 
  3. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Candida auris outbreak in healthcare facilities in northern Italy, 2019-2021. Rapid risk assessment. Stockholm: ECDC; 2022. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/rapid-risk-assessment-candida-auris-outbreak-healthcare-facilities-northern-italy
  4. Lötsch F, Albiger B, Monnet DL, Struelens MJ, Seifert H, Kohlenberg A, et al. Epidemiological situation, laboratory capacity and preparedness for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Europe, 2019. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(45).  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.45.2001735  PMID: 33183407 
  5. Brolund A, Lagerqvist N, Byfors S, Struelens MJ, Monnet DL, Albiger B, et al. Worsening epidemiological situation of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe, assessment by national experts from 37 countries, July 2018. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(9).  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.9.1900123  PMID: 30862330 
  6. Jeffery-Smith A, Taori SK, Schelenz S, Jeffery K, Johnson EM, Borman A, et al. Candida auris: a review of the literature. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2017;31(1):e00029-17. . Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29142078 https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00029-17  PMID: 29142078 
  7. Jacobs SE, Jacobs JL, Dennis EK, Taimur S, Rana M, Patel D, et al. Candida auris pan-drug-resistant to four classes of antifungal agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2022;66(7):e0005322.  https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.00053-22  PMID: 35770999 
  8. Lyman M, Forsberg K, Reuben J, Dang T, Free R, Seagle EE, et al. Notes from the field: transmission of pan-resistant and echinocandin-resistant Candida auris in health care facilities - Texas and the District of Columbia, January-April 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021;70(29):1022-3.  https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7029a2  PMID: 34292928 
  9. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Candida auris in healthcare-settings – Europe. First Update. Stockholm: ECDC; 2018. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/portal/files/documents/RRA-Candida-auris-European-Union-countries.pdf
  10. Prestel C, Anderson E, Forsberg K, Lyman M, de Perio MA, Kuhar D, et al. Candida auris outbreak in a COVID-19 specialty care unit - Florida, July-August 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021;70(2):56-7.  https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7002e3  PMID: 33444298 
  11. Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/World Health Organization (WHO). Epidemiological alert: Candida auris outbreaks in health care services in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Washington, DC: PAHO/WHO; 2021. Available from: https://iris.paho.org/bitstream/handle/10665.2/53377/EpiUpdate6February2021_eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  12. Allaw F, Kara Zahreddine N, Ibrahim A, Tannous J, Taleb H, Bizri AR, et al. First Candida auris outbreak during a COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary-care center in Lebanon. Pathogens. 2021;10(2):157.  https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020157  PMID: 33546137 
  13. Nobrega de Almeida J Jr, Brandão IB, Francisco EC, de Almeida SLR, de Oliveira Dias P, Pereira FM, et al. Axillary Digital Thermometers uplifted a multidrug-susceptible Candida auris outbreak among COVID-19 patients in Brazil. Mycoses. 2021;64(9):1062-72.  https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.13320  PMID: 34009677 
  14. Hinrichs C, Wiese-Posselt M, Graf B, Geffers C, Weikert B, Enghard P, et al. Successful control of Candida auris transmission in a German COVID-19 intensive care unit. Mycoses. 2022;65(6):643-9.  https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.13443  PMID: 35419847 
  15. Di Pilato V, Codda G, Ball L, Giacobbe DR, Willison E, Mikulska M, et al. Molecular epidemiological investigation of a nosocomial cluster of C. auris: evidence of recent emergence in Italy and ease of transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Fungi (Basel). 2021;7(2):140.  https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7020140  PMID: 33672021 
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Tracking Candida auris. Atlanta: CDC. [Accessed: 26 Oct 2022]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/candida-auris/tracking-c-auris.html
  17. Theut M, Antsupova V, Andreasen AS, Buhl D, Midttun M, Knudsen JD, et al. [The first two cases of Candida auris in Denmark]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2022;184(16):V10210768. PMID: 35485779 
  18. Desnos-Ollivier M, Fekkar A, Bretagne S. Earliest case of Candida auris infection imported in 2007 in Europe from India prior to the 2009 description in Japan. J Mycol Med. 2021;31(3):101139.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mycmed.2021.101139  PMID: 33965885 

Data & Media loading...

Submit comment
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error