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Vaccination is important in containing the 2022 mpox (formerly monkeypox) epidemic. We describe five Belgian patients with localised severe symptoms of proctitis and penile oedema, occurring between 4 and 35 days after post-exposure preventive vaccination or after one- or two-dose off-label pre-exposure preventive vaccination with MVA-BN vaccine. Genome sequencing did not reveal evidence for immune escape variants. Healthcare workers and those at risk should be aware of possible infections occurring shortly after vaccination and the need for other preventive measures.


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