1887
Research Open Access
Like 0

Abstract

Background

The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most serious global public health threats of recent times. Understanding SARS-CoV-2 transmission is key for outbreak response and to take action against the spread of disease. Transmission within the household is a concern, especially because infection control is difficult to apply within this setting.

Aim

The objective of this observational study was to investigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Danish households during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods

We used comprehensive administrative register data from Denmark, comprising the full population and all COVID-19 tests from 27 February 2020 to 1 August 2020, to estimate household transmission risk and attack rate.

Results

We found that the day after receiving a positive test result within the household, 35% (788/2,226) of potential secondary cases were tested and 13% (98/779) of these were positive. In 6,782 households, we found that 82% (1,827/2,226) of potential secondary cases were tested within 14 days and 17% (371/2,226) tested positive as secondary cases, implying an attack rate of 17%. We found an approximate linear increasing relationship between age and attack rate. We investigated the transmission risk from primary cases by age, and found an increasing risk with age of primary cases for adults (aged ≥ 15 years), while the risk seems to decrease with age for children (aged < 15 years).

Conclusions

Although there is an increasing attack rate and transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 with age, children are also able to transmit SARS-CoV-2 within the household.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.6.2001800
2022-02-10
2022-10-02
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.6.2001800
Loading
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/eurosurveillance/27/6/eurosurv-27-6-3.html?itemId=/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.6.2001800&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Coronaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2. Nat Microbiol. 2020;5(4):536-44.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-0695-z  PMID: 32123347 
  2. World Health Organization (WHO). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): situation report, 165. Geneva: WHO; 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200703-covid-19-sitrep-165.pdf?sfvrsn=b27a772e_6
  3. Fernandes N. Economic effects of coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) on the world economy. SSRN. 2020; Preprint.
  4. Boldog P, Tekeli T, Vizi Z, Dénes A, Bartha FA, Röst G. Risk assessment of novel coronavirus COVID-19 outbreaks outside China. J Clin Med. 2020;9(2):571.  https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020571  PMID: 32093043 
  5. Chan JF-W, Yuan S, Kok K-H, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):514-23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9  PMID: 31986261 
  6. Leclerc QJ, Fuller NM, Knight LE, Funk S, Knight GM. What settings have been linked to SARS-CoV-2 transmission clusters? Wellcome Open Res. 2020;5:83.  https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15889.2  PMID: 32656368 
  7. Prem K, Cook AR, Jit M. Projecting social contact matrices in 152 countries using contact surveys and demographic data. PLOS Comput Biol. 2017;13(9):e1005697.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005697  PMID: 28898249 
  8. Davies NG, Klepac P, Liu Y, Prem K, Jit M, Eggo RM. Age-dependent effects in the transmission and control of COVID-19 epidemics. Nat Med. 2020;26(8):1205-11.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0962-9  PMID: 32546824 
  9. Cauchemez S, Donnelly CA, Reed C, Ghani AC, Fraser C, Kent CK, et al. Household transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(27):2619-27.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0905498  PMID: 20042753 
  10. He X, Lau EHY, Wu P, Deng X, Wang J, Hao X, et al. Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19. Nat Med. 2020;26(5):672-5.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0869-5  PMID: 32296168 
  11. Jing Q-L, Liu M-J, Zhang Z-B, Fang LQ, Yuan J, Zhang AR, et al. Household secondary attack rate of COVID-19 and associated determinants in Guangzhou, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(10):1141-50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30471-0  PMID: 32562601 
  12. Liu Y, Eggo RM, Kucharski AJ. Secondary attack rate and superspreading events for SARS-CoV-2. Lancet. 2020;395(10227):e47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30462-1  PMID: 32113505 
  13. Li W, Zhang B, Lu J, Liu S, Chang Z, Peng C, et al. Characteristics of household transmission of COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(8):1943-6.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa450  PMID: 32301964 
  14. Madewell ZJ, Yang Y, Longini IM Jr, Halloran ME, Dean NE. Household transmission of SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(12):e2031756.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.31756  PMID: 33315116 
  15. Reilev M, Kristensen KB, Pottegård A, Lund LC, Hallas J, Ernst MT, et al. Characteristics and predictors of hospitalization and death in the first 11 122 cases with a positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 in Denmark: a nationwide cohort. Int J Epidemiol. 2020;49(5):1468-81.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa140  PMID: 32887982 
  16. Statens Serum Institut. Ekspertrapport: Matematisk modellering af covid-19 smittespredning og sygehusbelastning ved scenarier for delvis genåbning af danmark. [Expert report: Mathematical modeling of covid-19 spread of infection and hospital load in scenarios for partial reopening of Denmark]. Danish. Copenhagen: Statens Serum Institut; 2020. Available from: https://files.ssi.dk/ekspertrapport--matematisk-modellering-af-covid19-den-2-april-2020
  17. Thygesen L. The register-based system of demographic and social statistics in Denmark. Stat J UN Econ Comm Eur. 1995;12(1):49-55.  https://doi.org/10.3233/SJU-1995-12106  PMID: 12320272 
  18. Ball R, Brown P. An empirical evaluation of accounting income numbers. J Account Res. 1968;6(2):159-78.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2490232 
  19. Moghadas SM, Fitzpatrick MC, Sah P, Pandey A, Shoukat A, Singer BH, et al. The implications of silent transmission for the control of COVID-19 outbreaks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2020;117(30):17513-5.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2008373117  PMID: 32632012 
  20. Jaffe-Hoffman M. Who has coronavirus and where did they catch it? The Jerusalem Post 20 July 2020. Jerusalem: The Jerusalem Post. Available from: https://www.jpost.com/health-science/who-has-coronavirus-and-where-did-they-catch-it-635596
  21. Pollán M, Pérez-Gómez B, Pastor-Barriuso R, Oteo J, Hernán MA, Pérez-Olmeda M, et al. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Spain (ENE-COVID): a nationwide, population-based seroepidemiological study. Lancet. 2020;396(10250):535-44.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31483-5  PMID: 32645347 
  22. Bi Q, Wu Y, Mei S, Ye C, Zou X, Zhang Z, et al. Epidemiology and transmission of COVID-19 in 391 cases and 1286 of their close contacts in Shenzhen, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(8):911-9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30287-5  PMID: 32353347 
  23. Ludvigsson JF. Children are unlikely to be the main drivers of the COVID-19 pandemic - A systematic review. Acta Paediatr. 2020;109(8):1525-30.  https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.15371  PMID: 32430964 
  24. Zhang J, Litvinova M, Liang Y, Wang Y, Wang W, Zhao S, et al. Changes in contact patterns shape the dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Science. 2020;368(6498):1481-6.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb8001  PMID: 32350060 
  25. Kucharski AJ, Russell TW, Diamond C, Liu Y, Edmunds J, Funk S, et al. Early dynamics of transmission and control of COVID-19: a mathematical modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(5):553-8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30144-4  PMID: 32171059 
/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.6.2001800
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary data

Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error