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Despite high COVID-19 vaccine coverage in the EU/EEA, there are increasing reports of SARS-CoV-2 infections and hospitalisations in vaccinated individuals. Using surveillance data from Estonia, Ireland, Luxembourg and Slovakia (January–November 2021), we estimated risk reduction of severe outcomes in vaccinated cases. Increasing age remains the most important driver of severity, and vaccination significantly reduces risk in all ages for hospitalisation (adjusted relative risk (aRR): 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26–0.39) and death (aRR: 0.20; 95% CI: 0.13–0.29).


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