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Surveillance Open Access
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Abstract

Background

International organisations are calling for One Health approaches to tackle antimicrobial resistance. In France, getting an overview of the current surveillance system and its level of integration is difficult due to the diversity of surveillance programmes.

Aim

This study aimed to map and describe all French surveillance programmes for antibiotic resistance (ABR), antibiotic use (ABU) and antibiotic residues, in humans, animals, food and the environment, in 2021. Another objective was to identify integration points, gaps and overlaps in the system.

Methods

We reviewed the literature for surveillance programmes and their descriptions. To further characterise programmes found, semi-directed interviews were conducted with their coordinators.

Results

In total 48 programmes in the human (n = 35), animal (n = 12), food (n = 3) and/or the environment (n = 1) sectors were identified; 35 programmes focused on ABR, 14 on ABU and two on antibiotic residues. Two programmes were cross-sectoral. Among the 35 ABR programmes, 23 collected bacterial isolates. Bacteria most targeted were (n = 17 programmes), (n = 13), and (n = 12). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing was monitored by most ABR programmes (15 of 35) in humans, animals and food, and is a good candidate for integrated analyses. ABU indicators were highly variable. Areas poorly covered were the environmental sector, overseas territories, antibiotic-resistant-bacterial colonisation in humans and ABU in companion animals.

Conclusion

The French surveillance system appears extensive but has gaps and is highly fragmented. We believe our mapping will interest policymakers and surveillance stakeholders. Our methodology may inspire other countries considering One Health surveillance of ABR.

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2023-06-01
2024-06-16
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2023.28.22.2200804
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