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Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV)7 and PCV13 programmes started in Israel from July 2009 and November 2010 respectively, with a 2+1 schedule (one dose at 2 months old, one at 4 months old, and a booster dose at 12 months old). Thereafter, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates substantially declined in children. Uptake of all three doses in < 2-year-olds since 2012 is > 90%. For still incompletely vaccinated infants (≤ 12 months old), how well the PCV 2+1 programme shields from IPD is not fully resolved.


To assess the adequacy of protection conferred by the 2+1 schedule PCV vaccination programme, particularly among incompletely-vaccinated infants.


This was a population-based, prospective, nationwide active IPD surveillance study in Israel, 2004–2019, in children < 24 months old. We estimated annual incidence rates (IR) of overall IPD, IPD caused by PCV13 serotypes (VT13), and non-PCV13 serotypes (NVT13). Annual IPD IRs were stratified by age: < 4 months (receiving ≤ 1 dose), 4–6 months (immediately post dose 2), 7–12 months (a few months post dose 2), and 13–23 months (post dose 3). Late-PCV (2004–2008) to pre-PCV13 (2016–2019) mean annual IR ratios (IRRs) were calculated.


2,569 IPD episodes were recorded. VT13 decreased > 90% in all age groups, while NVT13 seemed to increase. All-IPD rates declined in all age groups by 56–70%. The 2+1 schedule impact on 7–12-month-old infants (pre-booster) was similar to that on 13–23-month-old children (post booster), with PCV13 IPD reductions of 97% and 98%, respectively.


Indirect (herd) protection of infants, including < 4 month-olds with ≤ 1 PCV dose, was achieved by the 2+1 PCV schedule programme which thus seems adequate.


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