Rapid communication Open Access
Like 0


Approximately five million Ukrainians were displaced to the EU/EEA following the Russian invasion of Ukraine. While tuberculosis (TB) notification rates per 100,000 Ukrainians in the EU/EEA remained stable, the number of notified TB cases in Ukrainians increased almost fourfold (mean 2019–2021: 201; 2022: 780). In 2022, 71% cases were notified in three countries, and almost 20% of drug-resistant TB cases were of Ukrainian origin. Targeted healthcare services for Ukrainians are vital for early diagnosis and treatment, and preventing transmission.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. World Health Organization (WHO). Tuberculosis profile: Ukraine. Geneva: WHO. [Accessed: 5 Dec 2023]. Available from: https://worldhealthorg.shinyapps.io/tb_profiles/?_inputs_&entity_type=%22country%22&iso2=%22UA%22&lan=%22EN%22
  2. World Health Organization (WHO). Definitions and reporting framework for tuberculosis – 2013 revision: updated December 2014 and January 2020. Geneva: WHO. [Accessed: 5 Dec 2023]. Available from: https://iris.who.int/handle/10665/79199
  3. World Health Organization (WHO). Global tuberculosis report 2023. Geneva: WHO; 7 Nov 2023. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/9789240083851
  4. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring in Europe 2023 – 2021 data. Stockholm: ECDC; 24 Mar 2023. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/tuberculosis-surveillance-and-monitoring-europe-2023-2021-data
  5. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) Operational Data Portal. Ukraine Refugee Situation. Geneva: UNHCR. [Accessed: 18 Dec 2023]. Available from: https://data.unhcr.org/en/situations/ukraine
  6. European Commission. Commission implementing Decision (EU) 2018/945 of 22 June 2018 on the communicable diseases and related special health issues to be covered by epidemiological surveillance as well as relevant case definitions. Official Journal of the European Union. L 170.1. 6 Jul 2018. Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32018D0945
  7. Eurostat. Data browser. Luxembourg: Eurostat. [Accessed: 27 Nov 2023]. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/databrowser/explore/all/all_themes?lang=en&display=list&sort=category
  8. Statistics Estonia. RV069U: population by country of birth/citizenship, county, sex and age group, 1 January. Tallinn: Statistics Estonia. [Accessed: 27 Nov 2023]. Available from: https://andmed.stat.ee:443/pxweb/en/stat/stat__rahvastik__rahvastikunaitajad-ja-koosseis__rahvaarv-ja-rahvastiku-koosseis/RV069U.px/
  9. World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe. EuroTB. TB & HIV estimates calculator. Copenhagen: WHO/Europe. [Accessed: 6 Sep 2023]. Available from: https://eurotb.net/mig-calc
  10. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO consolidated guidelines on tuberculosis. Module 4: Treatment - drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment, 2022 update. Geneva: WHO; 15 Dec 2022. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/9789240063129
  11. Dohál M, Dvořáková V, Šperková M, Pinková M, Ghodousi A, Omrani M, et al. Tuberculosis in Ukrainian War Refugees and Migrants in the Czech Republic and Slovakia: A Molecular Epidemiological Study. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2023.
  12. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Testing for tuberculosis infection and screening for tuberculosis disease among refugees arriving in European countries from Ukraine. Stockholm: ECDC; 7 Apr 2022. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/testing-tuberculosis-infection-and-screening-tuberculosis-disease-among-displaced
  13. Häcker B, Breuer C, Priwitzer M, Otto-Knapp R, Bauer T. TB screening of Ukrainian refugees in Germany. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2023;27(8):641-2.  https://doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.23.0073  PMID: 37491750 
  14. Ferro R, Vieira M, Duarte R. Tuberculosis Screening of Ukrainian Refugees in Portugal. Acta Med Port. 2023;36(7-8):535-336.  https://doi.org/10.20344/amp.19720  PMID: 37429588 
  15. Sciensano. Advice on tuberculosis (TB) screening of Ukrainian citizens arriving in Belgium. Brussels: Sciensano. 13 Dec 2022. Available from: https://www.sciensano.be/sites/default/files/20221214_advice_tb-screening_ukraine_1.pdf
  16. Guthmann J-P, Fraisse P, Bonnet I, Robert J. Active tuberculosis screening among the displaced population fleeing Ukraine, France, February to October 2022. Euro Surveill. 2023;28(12):2300155.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2023.28.12.2300155  PMID: 36951786 
  17. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO consolidated guidelines on tuberculosis: Module 4: treatment: tuberculosis care and support. Geneva: WHO. 11 Jul 2022. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/9789240047716
  18. World Health Organization (WHO). Fighting drug-resistant tuberculosis in Poland with a patient-centred model of care. Geneva: WHO. 10 May 2023. Available from: https://www.who.int/europe/news/item/10-05-2023-fighting-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-poland-with-a-patient-centred-model-of-care
  19. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO announces updated definitions of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Geneva: WHO. 27 Jan 2021. Available from: https://www.who.int/news/item/27-01-2021-who-announces-updated-definitions-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary data

Submit comment
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error