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A severe outbreak of influenza A(H1N1pdm09) infection in seven children (median age: 52 months) occurred between December 2023 and January 2024 in Tuscany, Italy. Clinical presentation ranged from milder encephalopathy to acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) with coma and multiorgan failure; one child died. This report raises awareness for clinicians to identify and treat early acute encephalopathy caused by H1N1 influenza and serves as a reminder of severe presentations of influenza in young children and the importance of vaccination.


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