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Between the start of the Russian Federation’s invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022 and May 2023, more than 8 million individuals have been displaced from Ukraine. Ukraine has the second-largest HIV epidemic in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. From a humanitarian and public health perspective it is critical that Ukrainian refugees living with or at risk of HIV have access to testing, treatment and healthcare in their destination country. To gain better insight on the number of refugees from Ukraine receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in destination countries, the WHO Regional Office for Europe and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control conducted three surveys in July 2022, November 2022 and March 2023. Among 39 countries that responded to at least one survey, 31 had information on the number of refugees from Ukraine receiving ART in their country. A total of 6,519 refugees (1.5 per 1,000 refugees) received ART, lower than previous estimates by WHO, ECDC and partners of between 0.16% and 1.0%. This discrepancy may suggest a substantial number of undiagnosed and/or diagnosed but untreated HIV infections. Improving access to healthcare for people living with HIV among refugees from Ukraine is vital to ensure quality care.


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