Surveillance and outbreak reports Open Access
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We describe trends of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from humans in Italy from January 1980 to December 2011. A total of 229,279 Salmonella isolates were reported during this period. Serovars Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Infantis, Derby, 4,[5],12,:i:-, and Napoli accounted for 135,783 (59%) of these isolates. Temporal trends from 2000 to 2011 varied by serovar: Enteritidis and Infantis decreased significantly (with a mean of -3.0% and -2.8% isolates per year, respectively, p<0.001); Typhimurium remained stable; while 4,[5],12:i:-, Derby and Napoli increased significantly (+66.4%, p<0.001; +8.1%, p<0.001; and +28.2%, p<0.05, respectively). Since 2000, Enteritidis fell consistently below Typhimurium, which is the most reported serovar in Italy in contrast to the international situation where Enteritidis still ranks at the top despite its significant decrease. Most serovars showed a marked seasonality, increasing over the summer months and peaking in August/September. Typhimurium, 4,[5],12:i:-, and Napoli were most likely to be isolated from children, whereas Enteritidis, Derby, and Infantis from adults. We conclude that the applied control measures are not equally efficient against the considered Salmonella serovars and that sources of infection other than those of Enteritidis (laying hens and eggs) have become increasingly important. Further investigations on the emerging serovars and on the causes related to their emergence are needed to define and implement newly tailored control measures.


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